The Special Senses (Taste and Smell) Flashcards Preview

Anatomy Final > The Special Senses (Taste and Smell) > Flashcards

Flashcards in The Special Senses (Taste and Smell) Deck (35):
1

What does taxare mean

to test; stands for sense of taste

2

What are the chemoreceptors found primarily in the oral cavity on the tongue

Taste receptors

3

Taste receptors can also be found in the

cheeks, soft palate, epiglottis and pharynx

4

Sensor receptor organs for taste

Taste Buds

5

Where can taste buds be found and what are they made of

Papillae (tiny elevations on the tongue), receptor and supporting cells

6

What are the receptor cells of gustation

Gustatory Cells

7

What does gustation mean?

Taste

8

Gustatory cells have what which are sensitive to chemicals that are what

hairs; hydrophilic compounds (dissolved in water)

9

How do the gustatory cells send impulses to the brain

the taste hairs have recpetor sites to which chemicals bind and trigger impulses tha go to the brain

10

What are the four primary kinds of taste cells and where are they located

Sweet- near tip of tongue
Sour- edges of tongue
Salty- tip and upper front of tongue
Bitter- towards back of tongue

11

What are some examples of sweet things

table sugar, saccharin, some amino acids, and lead salts

12

What are some examples of sour things

vinegar, lemon juice

13

What are some examples of salty things

inorganic salts such as NaCl (table salt)

14

What are some examples of bitter things

Caffeine, quinine, nicotine, strychnine, aspirin

15

What are the 3 nerve fibers that sensory impulses from the taste receptors travel on

Facial nerve (7), Glossopharyngeal (9), Vagus (10)

16

What impulses does the facial nerve get

impulses from he front of the tongue (sweet but also salty and sour)

17

What impulses does the glossopharyngeal nerve get

impulses from the back of the tongue (bitter)

18

What impulses does the vagus nerve get

Impulses from the epiglottis and pharynx (more bitter impulses)

19

What is the process of actually tasting (path impulses take)

Cranial nerves->medulla oblongata-> Thalamus->gustatory cortex in parietal lobes of cerebrum

20

What do "hot" (e.g. chili peppers) do in the mouth

they excite pain receptors (kills cells)

21

What percentage of taste is smell

80%

22

What is the sense of smell

Olfaction

23

What is the organ of smell

Olfactory Epithelium

24

Where are the olfactory epithelium located and what are they composed of

the roof of the nasal cavity; receptor and supporting cells

25

Bipolar neurons with cilia that respond to lipid-soluble (hydrophobic) chemicals

Olfactory receptor cells

26

Cilia on olfactory receptors

Olfactory hairs

27

How are they similar to taste hairs

they are nonmotile and with receptor sites

28

What do olfactory glands produce that cover the receptor cells and how does this work with smelling

Mucus; odors dissolve in the mucus

29

Olfactory impulses result from what combining with specific site on the cilia of the receptor cells

various gaseous molecules

30

There are 7 of these that the smell of something is based on by which of these or which combination of these is stimulated

primary odors

31

What are the 7 primary odors

1~Camphoraceous= (camphor oil)
2~ musky=(musk)
3~ floral= (flowers)
4~ pepperminty= (peppermint)
5~ etheral= (ether)
6~ pungeant= (spices)
7~ Putrid= (smell of decaying flesh or rotten food)

32

Pain receptors provide the smell of what

Sharp (ammonia)
Hot (Chili Peppers)
Chill (Menthol)

33

What is special about Olfactory receptors

they adapt quickly

34

What happens to olfactory receptors if they are often damaged by environmental factors

they are not replaced

35

What is the process of smelling (what path do the smell impulses take)

olfactory receptors -> olfactory nerves -> along olfactory tract -> olfactory bulbs -> to either olfactory cortex (to determine what it is) or limbic system (to determine how to respond to the smell)