Previous Test Essay questions Flashcards Preview

Anatomy Final > Previous Test Essay questions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Previous Test Essay questions Deck (38):

List the characteristics of Life

~Be composed of cells
~Have similar biochemistry
~Be responsive
~Be capable of reproduction


What is a cell

the microscopic units capable of performing all of the body's functions


What is the bodies biochemistry consist of

composed of lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids


What is metabolism

All the chemical reactions that occur in a body; the breaking down or building up of compounds


What is responsiveness

Excitability; the ability to respond to changes in the environment. Hot= sweat, Cold= shiver


What is reproduction

making copies of oneself; pass down genes to future generations


What problem was the PAP smear checking for

It is used to check for changes in the cells of the vagina or to check for abnormal cells


How did someone looking at the PAP smear determine if there was a problem

If the cells became abnormal, they may change shape or size, or if there is an unusual amount of excess cells due to the loss of contact inhibition


If a PAP smear comes back positive, it may become deadly because

it means that the cells can be precancerous and may develop into cervical cancer


What follow up tests may be performed after a PAP smear

more PAP smears, a colposcopy, or a biopsy


List four possible mutagens

~U.V. light radiation
~Chemicals in tobacco
~Chemicals in petroleum based products


Explain how proteins are synthesized

1st stage is transcription
2nd stage is processing the mRNA
3rd stage is translation


Describe Transcription

the DNA info is encoded into mRNA this occurs in the nucleus


Stages of transcription

1). the section of DNA, with the pattern for the polypeptide, uncoils
2).the mRNA attaches to the DNA in a complimentary fashion
3). each set of 3 bases (codon)
4). After entire section is matched, mRNA detaches


explain the processing of the mRNA

~Before mRNA leaves the nucleus, introns seperate from exons and exons are spliced together.
~Exons exit the nucleus which carry the genetic info
~Introns stay in the nucleus, which is the non-informational portion


Describe Translation

the info carried by the mRNA is decoded and used to assemble polypeptides; occurs in the cytoplasm


Stages of translation

1) Ribosomes attach to mRNA to hold them
2). Ribosomes then attach the mRNA codon to the correct tRNA anticodon
3). The amino acids are hooked together and moves on until the whole sequence is hooked and the ribosome releases the finished protein


The process of blood cell formation



List where hematopoiesis occurs for the different stages of life

1~Yolk sac of an embryo
2~ Liver and spleen of fetus
3~ Red bone marrow of children and adults


Define Vascularization

The varying amounts of blood supply a tissue gets


Two types of avascular connective tissue

Cartilage and dense regular connective tissue (tendons and ligaments)


How does vascularization affect how quickly avascular tissue heal, including why

They heal very slowly because they do not have a direct blood supply that carry the necessary oxygen and nutrients needed to heal tissue


What are 6 different parts that can be found in a synovial joint

Synovial Membrane
Articular Cartilage
Joint Capsule
Tendon Sheath


What does the synovial membrane do

Secretes synovial fluid for lubrication and reduce friction


What is the joint capsule of a synovial joint

it is the capsule that holds the join together


What is the articular cartilage in regards to a synovial joint

Covers ends of bones where they articulate and cushions them and absorbs compression


What is the meniscus of a synovial joint

a disk of fibrocartilage that allows compression


what is the purpose of the bursae in a synovial joint

it cushions synovial joints and relieves pressure


what is a tendon sheath

and elongated bursa that wraps completely around the tendon


What is the relationship between heat stroke and humidty

An increase in humidity can cause heat stroke because the air can only hold a limited amount of water vapor.
If it is very humid, then the air is already holding a high percentage of water vapor
This prevents sweat from evaporating into the atmosphere because there is already enough water vapor in the air.
If the sweat does not evaporate, then the body will not cool off so the internal body temperature will rise.
This increases metabolic reactions in the body which increase body temperature even more leading to heat stroke.
This can lead to organ damage and even death.


What is the Reticular Formation

Clusters of neurons in the mid-brain, pons, and medulla oblongota


What does the Reticular Formation do

~Filters incoming sensory impusles
~arouses the individual when significant impulses are received


How can the Reticular Formation differbetween people

~it arouses the individual when significant impulses are recieved
~It can differ because the definition of a significant impulse is different among people so some people will wake up to certain things while others will sleep through it


What does EPSPs and IPSPs stand for

Excitatory Post-Synaptic Potentials
Inhibatory Post-Synaptic Potentials


Compare EPSPs and IPSPs and tell how they are similar

Both have neurotransmitters that cause a polarization that opens some kind of ion channel.


What is the main difference between EPSPs and IPSPs

ESPSs use neurotransmitters to initate action potentials by depolarizing and opening sodium-ion channels
IPSPs initiate action potentials by hyperpolarizing and opening the potassium-ion channels


List 5 muscles, their joints, and joint movments

1). Deltoid= shoulder joint= abduction of the arm
2). Biceps Brachii= Elbow joint between ulna and humerus=flexion of arms
3). Right sternocleidomastoid= atlanto-occipital joint= rotation of head to the right
4). Digastric= temporomandibular joint= depression of mandible
5). Masseter= temporomandibular joint= elevation of the mandible


Steps of muscle contraction

1) Motor Neuron releases acetylcholine which activates motor end plate by binding to and opening sodium gates
2). this allows sodium to enter cell and causes depolarization, causing an action potential.
3). Depolarization of adjacent sarcolemma allows action potential to spread down muscle fiber
4). AP travel deep into muscle fiber by transverse tubules.
5). AP causes triad region of sarcoplasmic reticulum to release calcium
6). Calcium binds to troponin and moves tropomyosin so actin and myosin filaments can link
7). A cross bridge is formed with head of myosin filament to the actin filament and the myosin filament performs several powerstrokes to pull actin filament to the center of the sarcomer
8). using ATP the myosin filament detaches from the actin to recock and perform another powerstroke until muscle is contracted