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Flashcards in The Swing Era Deck (18)
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- More money; urban living, leisure, modernity
- Casual public interactions between men and women
- Exploration, free-spending social dancing, and drinking



-Great depresion
- economic affluence that supported jazz vanished
- bankruptcy


Social movements

-American Communist party
- Rastafarianism
- Nation of Islam


New Deal, Common Man, & Swing Ideology

- President Franklin Roosevelt New deal, federal relief policies, public work jobs, govt support
- jazz went up in New deal


Swing ideology

- Emerged after 1935
- represented leftist: equated democracy
- played by big bands liberating self expression
- vehicle that promoted AA culture
- functional dance music
- declined in 1940s
- Network radio cheap entertainment
- musicians started road trips


Big Bands

- proliferated in 1930s-1940s
- popularity spurred by radio broadcasts
- territory bands Don Albend Band, Texas - training grounds
- Hot style music


BIg Bands

- larger ensemble
- bandleading
- arrangers
- interplay bt sections
- Saxophone became melodic foundation


Coleman Hawkins

Muscular assertive style marked by harmonic sophistication, heavy vibrato (wavering sound), and arpeggios ( broken chords)
_ Four sax model: soprano, alto, tenor , baritone became standard
_ Rhythm section: piano ( and or guitar) , acoustic bass, drum set w/ tuba or banjo


Rhythm section

walking bass- playing a different note on each of 4 beats
guitar- steady one chordal strum per beat called chomping
drums- steady beat on bass drum w/ ride patterns
piano- uncluttered smooth



Written arrangement
- antiphony : one section plays against other section
- Riffs : Short repeated melodic phrases accompanied by solos
- Soli: harmonized melody played by one section
- Shout chorus: last chorus , loudest, climax of song: woody herman
- Stop time: band played brief chords at intervals and soloist improvise

rhythmic quality called swing


BIg bands

- Symbolized orderly progress
- Education was blocked racial discrimination but musicians learned values : presentation and appearance


Benny Goodman

- Lets dance radio program
- Clarinet and bandleader
- Represented Traditional AA swing to white audience
- Formed small interracial groups : 1st band SIng SIngSIng


Duke Ellington

- Composer, pianist, arranger, bandleader : greatest composer
- Jungle style wah wah and growl sound to evoke dark jungle
- transformed jazz from dance music to serious for listening and attentive contemplation
- Ellington effect showing strong musical personalities


Women Musicians

- Usually only singing or playing piano


Billie Holiday

- known for vocal delivery and improvisational skills
- one on one relationship when singing


Count Basie

- Jam sessions in Kansas City improv
- less is more
- relaced swing and groove


Mary Lou Williams

- From Kansas City
- First woman in jazz history to compose and arrange for a large jazz band
- played piano
-arranged for benny goodman duke ellington and dizzy gillespie


Charlie Christian

- Early proponent of electric guitar
- got big break when played for benny goodman
- adapted single note horn lines to guitar