Jazz Age: Chicago & New York 1920's Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Jazz Age: Chicago & New York 1920's Deck (19)
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1

Jazz age

After WWI, "end of American Innocence", new outlook emerged

2

Migration

Between 195-1920 wartime jobs in North encouraged African Americans to leave South, musicians from New Orleans joined

3

Urbanization and Musical Infrastructure

Chicago southside and New York Harlem developed infrastructure provided guidance and institutional support
- booking agencies
- theatres
- nightclubs
- music critics
- sheet music companies
- trade unions
- trade schools
Provided profits and social impact

4

Politics

Jazz was a tool in the fight against segregation and racist attitudes; unfolded concurrently with civil rights
Marcus garvey black nationalism

5

Professionalization

Musicians had to be accomplished players able to read and write music; NYC Bway and Tin Pan Alley

storyville closed in 1917; gave opportunity for musicians in speakeasies dancehalls and most importantly recording

6

Chicago

Segregated
southside- vital black community broad avenues, spacious homes and yards, parks and schools- better life
commercial blocks and intersections called " the Stroll" had movie theaters music halls chicken shacks and dance halls most featured music

7

Chicago

became major center for New Orleans Style
competitive world of cabaret
musicians wore tuxedos symbolizing sophisticated urban style in racial pride; exemplified WEB Dubois called talented tenth
blk musicians held in high regard

8

Chicago

During prohibition speakeasies controlled by white gangsters; alcohol and music spaces called blk and tan
hot jazz underwent changes in Chicago

9

Louis Armstrong

- most prominent New Orleans musician to seek professional opportunities
- Major figure in jazz and American Culture
- Transformed N.O ensemble into soloist art
- Jazz first great improviser
- Promoted swing; new rhythmic groove
- Left Chicago for NY and joined Fletcher Henderson
- Grinning on stage put white audience at ease
- used scatting( nonsense) to mimic trumpet playing
- best improvising soloist in jazz

10

Chicagoans

Aspiring musicians played in frat parties , restaurants, soda shops- created network called gangs

11

Chicago- small group musical style

-Combined soloing with polyphonic melodies
- trombone replaced by tenor saxophone
- tuba replaced by string bass
- hot music NO style small group

12

Bix Beiderbecke

- the white Louis Armstrong
- played cornet and piano
- Died young of alcoholism
-Guiding spirit of white chicagoans
- Cool calm pretty notes shy politeness

13

Dance orchestras

- popular attractions in theatres, cabarets, ballrooms
- comported w/blk public expectations of professionalism and dignified presentation
- highly arranged music, no improv, added European techniques
- for polite dancing called sweet bands - carrol Dickinson and Erskine tates vendome orchestras

14

New York

- Entertainment business infrastructure
- The Jazz Mecca
- Borrowed from many kinds of music
including
- big bands
- rag time
- pop music
- vaudeville
etc
Dance orchestras larger 12 musicians
- segregated

15

Paul Whiteman

- Proclaimed King of jazz
- first pop superstar
- Jazz blended with classical music
- Sweet style
- large orchestra
- Make a lady of Jazz

16

Fletcher Henderson

- studied piano and European classical music
- Primary influence on big band development
- African American Bandleader
- Lead famous white Roseland Ballroom
- 1924 added Louis Armstrong

17

Antiphony/riffs

-Brass and reed sections play off each other in alteration
- riffs in brass and reeds accompany solos

18

Harlem

- Promised land for African Americans in 1920s
- Harlem reinassance flowering of blk culture and intellectual life : community pride
- For working class reinassance was invisible
- Jazz flourished bc gangsters hired jazz musicians; mostly solo piano players
- Piano battleground
- Piano symbol of middle class aspiration into white culture
- rent parties blk piano players challenged eachother in "stride" piano playing ; left hand strides right hand played syncopated melody and improv

19

Art Tatum

- greatest jazz pianist
- raised the bar for other pianist