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Flashcards in The UK's evolving physical landscape Deck (22):
1

What is igneous rock made from ?

magma (granite)

2

What is sedimentary rock made from ?

compressed sediment (e.g. clay, chalk, limestone)

3

What is metamorphic rock ?

igneous or sedimentary rock changed by heat or pressure (e.g. shale into slate)

4

What is the main rock type in the upland landscapes (top half) ?

igneous and metamorphic rock

5

What is the main rock type in the lowlands (bottom half) ?

sedimentary rock

6

What are the characteristics of chalk ?

- strong

- permeable

- only found in lowland Britain

- forms cliffs at coastlines

7

What are the characteristics of clay ?

- weak

- impermeable

- found everywhere in Britain

- clay landscapes are typically wide, flat plains with lots of lakes, streams and rivers

8

What are the characteristics of granite ?

- hard

- resistant to erosion

- impermeable

- landscapes are badly drained

9

What are the characteristics of metamorphic rocks ?

- very strong

- resistant to erosion and weathering

10

What is slate formed from ?

clay - layers in the clay for weak planes in the slate

11

What is the cause of the differences in upland and lowland areas ?

different physical processes working together

12

The UK's landscape has been heavily influenced by human activities, name three of them

AGRICULTURE :
- drainage ditches have been built to drain water away from low-lying agriculture to allow crops to grow

FORESTRY :
- uplands have been planted with trees, often for timber production

SETTLEMENT :
- as settlements grew they took over the landscape
- in big cities many rivers/streams run underground

13

How did erosion during glaciers influence the physical ?

as a glacier moves downhill, rock that have been frozen in the base / sides scrape the rock beneath (plucking)

14

How did weathering during glaciers influence the physical landscape ?

freeze thaw

15

What are the glacial transportation ?

BULLDOZING - when material is moved by glaciers, there are 3 types (moraines)

16

What is lateral moraine ?

material deposited along BOTH SIDES

17

What is medial moraine ?

material deposited in the MIDDLE when glaciers meet

18

What is terminal moraine ?

material deposited at the END of a glacier

19

What are the advantages of farming in the South Downs ?

- income supports economy
- provides 6% employment
- supports rare birds

20

What are the advantages of forestry in the South Downs

- provides habitats for wide range
- timber is valuable source

21

What are the disadvantages of farming in the South Downs ?

- changes have damaged wildlife
- decline in chalk grassland due to cemicals

22

What are the disadvantages to forestry in the South Downs ?

- lack of management = decline in biodiversity and woodland