Flashcards in The UK's evolving physical landscape Deck (22):
What is igneous rock made from ?
What is sedimentary rock made from ?
compressed sediment (e.g. clay, chalk, limestone)
What is metamorphic rock ?
igneous or sedimentary rock changed by heat or pressure (e.g. shale into slate)
What is the main rock type in the upland landscapes (top half) ?
igneous and metamorphic rock
What is the main rock type in the lowlands (bottom half) ?
What are the characteristics of chalk ?
- only found in lowland Britain
- forms cliffs at coastlines
What are the characteristics of clay ?
- found everywhere in Britain
- clay landscapes are typically wide, flat plains with lots of lakes, streams and rivers
What are the characteristics of granite ?
- resistant to erosion
- landscapes are badly drained
What are the characteristics of metamorphic rocks ?
- very strong
- resistant to erosion and weathering
What is slate formed from ?
clay - layers in the clay for weak planes in the slate
What is the cause of the differences in upland and lowland areas ?
different physical processes working together
The UK's landscape has been heavily influenced by human activities, name three of them
- drainage ditches have been built to drain water away from low-lying agriculture to allow crops to grow
- uplands have been planted with trees, often for timber production
- as settlements grew they took over the landscape
- in big cities many rivers/streams run underground
How did erosion during glaciers influence the physical ?
as a glacier moves downhill, rock that have been frozen in the base / sides scrape the rock beneath (plucking)
How did weathering during glaciers influence the physical landscape ?
What are the glacial transportation ?
BULLDOZING - when material is moved by glaciers, there are 3 types (moraines)
What is lateral moraine ?
material deposited along BOTH SIDES
What is medial moraine ?
material deposited in the MIDDLE when glaciers meet
What is terminal moraine ?
material deposited at the END of a glacier
What are the advantages of farming in the South Downs ?
- income supports economy
- provides 6% employment
- supports rare birds
What are the advantages of forestry in the South Downs
- provides habitats for wide range
- timber is valuable source
What are the disadvantages of farming in the South Downs ?
- changes have damaged wildlife
- decline in chalk grassland due to cemicals