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EDEXCEL Geography > Development dynamics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Development dynamics Deck (23):
1

What are some economic factors that effect development ?

- income

- type of industries

- security of jobs

2

What are some physical well - being factors that effect development

- diet

- access to clean water

- environment (natural hazards)

3

What are some mental well - being factors that affect development ?

- freedom

- security

- happiness

4

What are some social factors that effect development ?

- access to education

- access to health care

- access to leisure facilities

5

What are the two economic indicators ?

GDP: Gross Domestic Product is the total value of good and services produced by a country in a year

HDI: Human Development Index puts together GDP, life expectancy and years in education to calculate development

6

EXAM EXAMPLE:

Describe one example of an economic measure of development. (2)

GDP is an economic measure of development. It is the total value of good and services a country produces in a year.

7

Give some causes of global inequality.

- health

- climate

- topography

- government systems

- education

8

What does HDI score between ?

0 and 1

- 0.80 and over = high development (Eng)
- 0.50 to 0.79 = medium development (Chn)
- <0.50 = low development (Mlw)

9

EXAM EXAMPLE:

Explain why infant mortality rates vary between countries ? (4)

If there is not enough money to pay for medical care, infant mortality rate will be higher than where healthcare is well funded. If new mothers have not been educated about baby hygiene, infant mortality rate will be higher than where they have.

Environmental reasons may also be involved. For example, in tropical climates diseases like malaria cause many infant deaths.

10

What are the 6 stages in Rostow's modernisation theory ?

- traditional society

- pre-conditions for take-off

- take-off

- drive to maturity

- high mass consumption

11

What are the problems with Rostow's theory ?

- assumes all countries start at same development level

- doesn't consider quality / quantity of the countries resources, populating, climate etc

- out of date (18th to 19th century development)

- doesn't consider colonisation

12

What is Frank's dependancy theory ?

(1) developing countries can't develop because they're depended on developed countries

(2) most developed countries have the most power and hinder the development of other countries.

13

What are the problems with Frank's theory ?

- outdated (1950s) e.g. China and India are developing quickly.

- doesn't look at other factors that may limit development.

14

Name the two types of development

Top-down development

Bottom-up development

15

What is Top-down development ?

- large scale projects (national / regional level)

- very expensive (government funded)

- sophisticated technology that needs experts

16

What is Bottom-up development ?

- local scale projects (communities / villages)

- very cheap compared to TD (locally funded)

- straightforward technology that the locals learn to use / repair

17

What are 3 approaches to development ?

NGO: Non-Governmental Organisation e.g Action Aid

IGO: Intergovernmental Organisation e.g United Nations

TNC: Transnational Corporation e.g BT

18

EXAM EXAMPLE:

Explain one reason why US TNCs might want ti invest in African countries.

Countries like Nigeria and South Africa have valuable resources such as oil and diamonds. TNCs based in the USA can invest in these countries in order to get access to these resources.

19

What things to you need to know about India for you case study ?

- GDP

- FDI

- Globalisation

- Demographic change

- Regional changes

- P and N impacts of development

- Impacts on the environment

- International relationships

- P and N of FDI

20

What are the benefits of the Sardar Sarovar Dam ?
(TOP-DOWN)

- provides 3.5 billion litres of drinking water

- provides water for farmers to grow crops

21

What are the problems with the Sardar Sarovar Dam ?
(TOP-DOWN)

- 234 villages have been flooded

- Farmland and historical sights have been flooded

22

What is ASTRA ?
(BOTTOM-UP)

Application of Science and Technology in Rural Areas

- recent development

- produces gas (biogas) from cow dung

23

What are the 4 types of employment ?

Primary - involves getting food/resources from other countries

Secondary - involves manufacturing

Tertiary - providing a service

Quaternary - high-tech services