Flashcards in The Vine Deck (29)
Name the most important North American vine species
V. Labrusca, V. riparia, V. berlandieri, V. rupestris
List the main structures ofa growing cane
Stem, Buds, leaves, tendrils, lateral shoots, inflorescences/grape bunches
What does it mean for a shoot to lignify?
To become woody and rigid
Name the two kinds of buds found on the stems
Compound buds and Prompt buds
Define a Compound bud
A compound bud is formed in one growing season and then opens in the next.
They produce the main shoots in the next season
Within a Compound bud there are 3 separate kinds of buds, name them
Primary buds, secondary buds and tertiary buds.
Secondary and tertiary buds usually only grow if the primary bud has been damaged
How are lateral shoots formed?
Lateral shoots grow from prompt buds, and they are smaller and thinner than the main shoots.
True or False,
Lateral shoots have all the same components as the mains shoots
Their main function is to allow the plant to carry on growing if the tip of the main shoot gets damaged or eaten.
What is the benefit to leaving the lateral shoots on the plant?
They can allow the plant to produce a crop if the main grape cluster is damaged early on.
They can provide additional leaves for photosynthesis
Name the negatives associated with lateral shoots?
If located near the base of the main shoot they can shade the fruit to much and impede air flow
If a secondary crop (found on lateral shoots) is harvested at the same time as the main crop (found on the main shoot), how will the two fruits compare?
The secondary crop will be:
higher in acid
have a lower potential alcohol
may have unripe tannins and flavors
If the grapes are black, they will have less color development
True or False,
The main shoots of a vine can support themselves?
False, therefore they develop tendrils
Describe the stomata found on a leaf
They are the pores that open on the underside of a leaf.
They let water diffuse out (transpiration), and allow CO2 for photosynthesis to enter
what is an inflorescence?
A cluster of Flowers on a stem, which will become a bunch of grapes
How many inflorescences are usually found on the main shoot?
1 to 3
what all is contained within the pulp of a grape?
Water, Sugar, acids , aroma compounds and Aroma precersors, tannins and color compounds
What is the word used to describe grapes that have red colored pulp?
Give an example of a teinturier grape
What part of a grape has the highest concentration of aroma compounds and precursors?
what is the bloom of a grape?
A powdery waxy coating that covers the surface of a grape
what does one year old wood refer to?
the main shoots from the last growing season that were kept at pruning
In modern viticulture, what are the two ways vines are propagated?
either by cuttings or layering
Define a cutting
A section of a vine shoot that is planted and then grows a new plant
- the most common method of vine propagation
- Also permits the use of rootstocks, which can be grafted on before it is planted
Describe what Layering is
layering is a method of filling gaps in a vineyard due to the death of a vine.
Shoots from a neighboring vine are buried into the ground, which then will establish roots. Once the roots are established, the link connecting the plants is cut.
what is a draw back to using the layering method?
the new vine is own rooted, which is not always suitable ( i.e. no more phylloxera resistance)
describe Selection Massale
When vineyard owners go and take cuttings from their own vineyards and cultivate them.
What are the advantages to Selection Massale?
Increases the diversity of planting material in the vineyard and potentially the region
Vineyard owners get to use their own plant material
what are the negatives to Selection Massale
the monitoring of vines as to pick the best material is costly and takes time
If the parent material is infected, it will likely be passed onto the new vines.