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Flashcards in Theme 2 (industry & agriculture) Deck (93)
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1

Industrial production 1921 vs 1913

1/5 of 1913 (war communism)

2

Food production 1921 vs 1913

1/2 of 1913 (war communism)

3

How many died from famine and disease in 1929

20 million

4

How many red army troops needed for Tambov uprising?

100,000
(peasant army was 50,000)
*might be the other way round check in book*

5

What year was economy restored to pre civil war

1926 (success of NEP)

6

Magnitogorsk population numbers

1929 25 people
1932 250,000 people

7

By 1933, how much of Moscow workforce was skilled?

1933 only 17% skilled

8

White Sea canal numbers

141 miles
180,000 prisoners employed
10,000 died
1931-32

9

Stalingrad tractor factory numbers

Meant to produce 500 tractors a month, June 1930 made 8 and most broke down in 3 days

10

How much coal did alexei Stakhanov mine

102 tonnes (14X target)
began Stakhanovite movement in 1935

11

Coal increasing first plan

(1928-32 first plan)
1927: 35 million tonnes
1932: 64 million tonnes
(83% increase)

12

Coal production second plan

1932: 64 million tonnes
1937: 128 million tonnes
(doubled)

13

1928-1941 economic growth rate?

17%

14

How did steel and coal production increase all plans

1928-41
4 fold in steel.
6 fold in coal

15

By 1932 how many household collectivised compared to 1937

62% in 1932
93% in 1937

16

animal numbers reduced as a result of peasants resisting collectivisation

1928-1933
number of cattle halved
1/3 sheep and goats killed

17

Grain numbers collectivisation

1928-1934
73.3 - 67.6 million tonnes of grain
fell 7%

18

During famine how many died in 1933-34 famine?

5 million
Ukraine --> seized too much grain

19

WW2 arms production rose by what?

1943-45
73,000+ tanks
94,000 + aircraft

20

Wool production because of war

Wool production feel to 1/2 that of 1940 during war

21

Grain production because of WW2

95 million tonnes 1940
30 million tonnes 1942
fell to 31% 1940 level

22

By end of war how many homeless and how many places destroyed?

25 million homeless
1,700 towns 70,000 villages classified as “destroyed”

23

When was there a drought

1946

24

When was there famine in Ukraine (post WW2) due to drought

1947

25

Productivity in agriculture after the war

Lower than in 1913

26

Khrushchev suggested making larger collectives how many made by when

1952 over 100,000 large collectives created

27

when did Khrushchev set up Regional Economic councils and how many were there

1957 and 105 made

28

working week under Khrushchev

reduced from 48 hours a week to 41 by 1960

29

how much of profit were factory managers allowed to keep and invest under Khrushchev

40%

30

when was libreman plan published

1962

31

what plan did Khrushchev base reforms off of

liberman plan

32

when did Khrushchev boast overtaking western tech

1959

33

when was first satellite launched and what was it called

sputnik 1957

34

who was first man in space and when

yuri Gagarin 1961

35

growth rate in 1950s compared to USA

7%
USA: 2.9%

36

groeth rate in 1960s

5%

37

growth rate in 1970s

3%

38

when was virgin lands scheme

1956 - 63

39

how many tractors supplied for virgin lands scheme

120,000

40

how did farmers income and food production change under khrushchev

1952-58 farmer income doubled
1953-58 food production increased by 51%

41

when was there a poor harvest under Khrushchev and what did it result in

1963 shortages caused slaughter of millions of animals

42

when were kosygins reforms

1965
Kosygin (prime minister at the time) introduced bonuses for higher output --> mass production of cheap goods (not useful)

43

when was Kosygin sidelined

1968

44

when was industry joined with scientific research institutions

1973
(Brezhnev, Cold War)

45

consumer goods increasing numbers under Brezhnev

by 1980 85% families had TV, 70% had washing machines
only 9% had car

46

how did agriculture investment increase under Brezhnev

by 1976 26% investment in agriculture

47

Andropov private plots numbers

private plots were 1% of cultivated area
25% produce came from private plots

48

when was first 5 year plan

1928-32
(Stalin)

49

when was second 5 year plan

1933-37
(Stalin)

50

when was third 5 year plan

1938 - 1941 (cut short by German invasion)
(Stalin)

51

when was fourth 5 year plan

1946-50
(Stalin)

52

when was fifth 5 year plan

1951-55
(Stalin dies in 1953)

53

when did Lenin begin nationalisation?

1917

54

who controlled nationalised industries (set up by Lenin)

Veshenka
Set up in 1917

55

famine caused by War Communism (economic crisis 1921)

1920-21
6 million deaths

56

decline in workforce caused by War Communism (economic crisis 1921)

workers fled to countryside to find food
1917: 2.6 million workers
1921: 1.2 million workers

57

War communism

1918-21
- forced requisition
- nationalise all industry
- all able-bodied men 16-50 compulsory work
- abolition of money (caused by hyperinflation)

58

when was the NEP in place?

1921 - 1927

59

when did the government have to impose price cuts on industrial goods (Lenin)?

1923
"scissors crisis"

60

when was gosplan established?

1921

61

how did electricity increase first 3 plans?

1928 - 41
ten fold increase in electricity

62

when was Moscow's first train lines opened?

1935

63

military spending in 1940

1/3 government spending goes to army

64

how much was wasted in first 3 plans?

40% waste

65

when did Stalin start collectivisation?

1928

66

rise in grain exports (collectivisation)

1928: less than 1 million tonnes
1931: 5 million tonnes

67

private vs collective farms (shows inefficient collectives)

1932
private: average 410 kilos grain per hectare
collective: average 320 kilos grain per hectare

68

what % investment went to heavy industry after WW2?

90%

69

when was the russian economy the fastest growing in the world?

1950

70

when did the USSR test their first nuclear bomb?

1949

71

what % investment went to light industry in Stalin's years

less than 12%

72

how many new acres of land "farmed" in Virgin Lands Scheme

6 million new aches land

73

when were MTS abolished

1955
peasants loved this

74

When did Khrushchev allow peasants to sell things on private plots

1955

75

Ambitious Khrushchev aims (didn't happen)

Overtake American agriculture by 1960
Achieve communism by 1980

76

When was the soviet economy stagnant?

by 1985

77

Khrushchev's 7 year plan

1959 - 1965
aim to increase consumer goods & chemicals

78

outcome of 7 year plan (1959 - 65)

consumer goods 5% below target
Chemicals 20% below target

79

The land decree

1917
Gave all the land to the peasants

80

decree on workers control

1917
gave control of factories to the workers
Repealed in 1918 (too high wages)

81

when were all private banks nationalised

December 1917

82

how many 'volunteers' helped requisition grain during war communism

150,000

83

success of NEP stats grain

1921: 38 million tonnes
1926: 77 million tonnes
(grain doubled 1921 - 26)

84

results of first 5 year plan 1928-32

little impact until 1934.
Magnitogorsk population: 25 (1929) to 250,000 (1932) Quality often sacrificed to reach targets

85

results of second 5 year plan 1933 - 37

1928-41: 17% industrial growth rate

86

results of third 5 year plan 1938 - 41

interrupted (WW2)
USSR managed to fight off the Nazi invasion December 1941

87

results of fourth 5 year plan 1946-50

initial production recovered quickly (2 million slaves used), targets were over fulfilled.
Still a lack of new technology and chemicals

88

results of fifth 5 year plan 1951-55

urban areas recovered almost fully (rural areas took longer)
Soviet Union now a nuclear power

89

when did collectivisation become compulsory

1928

90

When was the sixth 5 year plan?

1956 - 58
Abandoned after 2 years for being too ambitious
(Khrushchev)

91

When was the seventh plan?

1959 - 65
7 year plan. Shift towards chemicals and consumer goods
(Khrushchev forced to step down 1964)

92

When was the eighth 5 year plan?

1966-70
amount of grain exports doubled
(Brezhnev)

93

When was the ninth 5 year plan?

1971-75
15 million tonnes grain imported - detente
(Brezhnev)