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Flashcards in Theme 5 (fall) Deck (63)
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1

when did Gorbachev become general secretary

March 1985

2

Twenty-Seventh party congress

February 1986
Gorbachev attacks Brezhnev era as years of stagnation

3

when was the Chernobyl nuclear incident

April 1986

4

twelfth five year plan launched

1986

5

when were the laws on state enterprises enacted

June 1987
Devolves power of factories to the managers. Allowed to set the prices for the goods they produced

6

Reason Yeltsin is dismissed as first secretary in Mocscow (November 1987) and then removed from central committee (February 1988)

October 1987 -> Yeltsin attacks Gorbachev's reforms at a meeting of the Central Committee

7

when was Yeltsin dismissed as first secretary in Moscow

November 1987
(slagged of Gorbachev 1 month before)

8

law on co-operatives

May 1988
legal to set up large co-operatives that functioned like private companies

9

When was Yeltsin removed from the Politburo

February 1988
(slagged of Gorbachev in October 1987)

10

when was the nineteenth party congress?

June 1988
Principle of multi-candidate elections agreed --> Congress of People's deputies March 1989

11

when were popular fronts formed in the Baltic republics

October 1988

12

When did Armenia announce its control over Nagorno-Karabakh

November 1988
(same month Estonia declares itself sovereign)

13

when was the election to Congress of People's deputies

March 1989
(first multi candidate election since 1921)

14

when was Gorbachev 'elected' Chairman of the Supreme Soviet

May 1989
Doesn't mean much, little respect
given emergency powers for 18 months to try and deal with economic crisis

15

when was the 500 days Programme put in place?

August 1990
Called for rapid transition to a market economy

16

when was the fall of the Berlin Wall?

November 1989
symbolic end to Cold War

17

When was article 6 repealed

March 1990
opened the way for new political parties to be established (same month as multi party republic elections)

18

When did Lithuania declare independence from the USSR (illegal)

March 1990
After multi candidate republic elections

19

When did Yeltsin reign from the communist party?

July 1990

20

when did Georgia declare independence

April 1991
(same month citizens allowed to buy and sell stocks/shares)

21

when did Yeltsin become president of Russia

June 1991

22

when was the coup by the gang of 8

August 1991
19th - 22nd

23

when did the Soviet Union recognize the Baltic states as independent

August 1991
(same month as coup by gang of 8)

24

when did Yeltsin reject Gorbachev's new Union Treaty

November 1991

25

when was the USSR formally cease to exist

31st December 1991

26

The Novosibirsk Report of 1983
aka "for internal use only"

by economic sociologist Tatyana Zaslavskaya
Drew attention to growing crisis in agriculture caused by state inefficiency and inflexibility
Most Politburo members ignored it, except Gorbachev who was aware that reform was needed

27

Gorbachev removes opposition / purge

1985: removes Grigory Romanov (leading rival)
appoints Nikolai Ryzhkov (prime minister), Viktor Chebrikov (head of KGB), Boris Yeltsin (head of party in Moscow)
1986: Yeltsin and Yakelov promoted to central comittee

28

alcohol spending in 1980s (stat)

alcohol accounted for 15% of a household's spending

29

Gorbachev quote on excessive alcohol use

April 1985 "we can't build communism on vodka"(many turned up to work drunk)

30

methods & goals of the 12th five year plan (1986-90)

methods: increased investment, controlled by central planning
goals: accelerate growth of economy, especially focusing on science and research (mainly engineering)

31

weaknesses of the 12th five year plan

- 'acceleration' paid for this by borrowing
- out of date machinery / technology --> unproductive
- focus remained on quantity over quality

32

why didn't Gorbachev's policy of acceleration actually help the economy?

Didn't address the fundamental problems that caused issues
Opposition to change from within the state and economic planning apparatus meant real change was hard to make

33

law on individual economic activity

November 1986
Legal for individuals to make money on small scale jobs

34

when did the supreme soviet introduce private property

January 1991

35

USSR citizens allowed to buy and sell stocks & shares

April 1991

36

government reveals scale of economic problems to the public for first time

1988

37

statistics to show further economic decline in 1991

1990 - 1991
oil production fell 9%
tractor and steel production both fell 12%
government bankrupt by summer that year

38

Yeltsin introduces programme of full marketisation

October 1991
neither Soviet or Republican governments had economic power to govern --> difficult to implement

39

Gorbachev goals 1985

- open up debate within party
- allow intellectuals freedom of expression
- allow public to have access to information

40

when was Glasnost introduced

1986
policy of openness
information about economics and soviet history made available

41

Gorbachev changes to media (more radical)

1986
appoints Alexandr Yakovklev for the responsible for Soviet media
he appointed radical editors

42

soviet press publicise criticisms of Marx and Lenin for first time

1988

43

when were citizens permitted to listen to foreign radio broadcasts and read foreign newspapers

1988

44

first multi candidate election since 1921

march 1989
many high ranking officials defeated
Yeltsin wins 89% in Moscow
Lead to the reformation of Inter-Regional Deputies' Group (IDRG) -> opposition group

45

republic elections (multi group)

march 1990
Opposition group 'Democratic Russia' wins 85% in Moscow
Opposition group 'Democratic Elections 90' wins 80% in Leningrad

46

riots in Kazakstan

December 1986
riots over replacing ethnic kazak Kunaev with Russian Kolbin as president of Kazakstan
(KKK. early because Gorbachev made changes early)

47

ethnic clashes in Uzbekistan

1989
Uzbeks massacre Muslim minority
Soviet authorities unable to restore peace or negotiate compromise

48

Tbilsi massacre

April 1989 (1 month after first multi candidate elections)
Georgian nationalists protest against rights of Abkhazian minority
Soviet troops attempt to restore order by force - 19 Georgian protestors killed, thousands more injured

49

'Sinatra Doctrine'

August 1989
Renounces USSR's "right" to intervene in the affairs of other socialist countries

50

Yeltsin insists laws of Russian parliament are legally superior to Soviet laws

May 1990

51

Estonia declares itself sovereign (does not leave USSR)

November 1988
(same month Armenia announced control over Nagorno-Karabakh)

52

invasion of Lithuania

Lithuania declared independence in March 1990.
January 1991 soviet troops invade Lithuania: occupy the press and television headquarters, 19 killed

53

response to killings in Lithuania

- Ukrainian miners in Donesk protest
- Yeltsin orders Russian army to refuse any soviet order that would suppress political protest

54

'Gang of 8' coup

1991
18th - 21st August

55

new treaty to create a more decentralised union

Suggested by Gorbachev in 1990
Complete draft ready July 1991
Meant to be signed August 1991 (caused coup)

56

Yeltsin removed communist party in Russia

suspends it August 1991
bans it November 1991

57

Ukraine leaves USSR

1st December 1991
90% Ukrainian population vote to leave
(2nd biggest state in USSR)

58

Minsk agreement

signed 21st December 1991
Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine leave USSR and form the Commonwealth of Independent Sates (CIS)

59

when did Gorbachev resign

25th December 1991

60

military spending in 1985 in USSR vs USA

17% government spending on military
vs 6% for USA (Cold War)

61

when was perestroika (openness) introduced

1985

62

attempt to combat alcoholism

1985 - 86 cut alcohol production by 50%
GDP fell 9% as a result (start selling again in 1988)

63

debt caused by borrowing in 12th 5 year plan
1986 - 1990

debt rose from $18 billion to $27 billion