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Flashcards in Theme 3 (control) Deck (66)
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1

when was the Decree on Press

1917
power to ban any "counter revolutionary" papers

2

when was the Revolutionary Tribunal on Press established

1918
power to censor the press and punish journalists who committed 'crimes against the people'

3

when was Glavit established

1922
professional censors

4

when was printing press nationalised

1920
Prevented any non communist publications

5

circulation of Trud and Pravada by 1983 (most popular papers)

Trud: 13.5 million
Pravada: 10.7 million

6

what % of Russian people illiterate in 1921

65%

7

when did the communist government start broadcasting radio

1921

8

how many radio stations were there (pre Brezhnev)

1

9

when did Brezhnev introduce a secondary radio channel

1964
'Radio Maiak' played some foreign music and was popular with young people

10

number of television sets from 1950s-80s (shows improvement)

1950: 10,000
1958: 3 million
1980: most of the population had a TV

11

how many TV channels in 1985?

2
(UK only had 6)

12

how tall was Stalin?

5'6
all statues depict him over 6ft

13

when was krushchev's secret speech?

1956

14

how many medals did Brezhnev award himself

over 100

15

when did attack on russian orthodox church begin?

1918

16

statistics to prove early attack on orthodox church (under Lenin)

by 1923: 28 bishops and over 1000 priests killed

17

league of militant godless established in

1929
Did 'god disproving' activities such as taking peasants in plane rides to show there was no heaven

18

statistic to show early attacks (under Lenin) on Orthodox Church not successful

mid 1920s, 55% of the USSR population were still active christians

19

statistic to show attack of church (under Stalin)

1930: 4/5 village churches either destroyed or out of operation

1939: only 12/163 bishops not in prison

20

when did Stalin change his policy towards the church

after German invasion 1941 (Church helped support war effort)
400 churches allowed to reopen during WW@

21

when did Khrushchev launch his anti-religious campaign

1958
Closed churches & launched anti religious campaign

22

statistic to show harshness of Khrushchev's anti religious campaign

in 4 years, 10,000 churches were closed

23

when was the Christian Committee for the Defence of Believers' Rights set up?

1976
Leader imprisoned in 1979 (didnt last long)
[Brezhnev]

24

when did Lenin establish the Cheka

1917

25

how many opponents shot by Cheka 1921-22

Red Terror 1921-22
200,000 shot

26

when was the Cheka replaced by the GPU

1922

27

when was the GPU replaced with the OGPU

1923

28

when did the OGPU merge with the interior ministry to form the NKVD

1934
(same year that Kirov was murdered)

29

when did Yagoda become head of the secret police

1934
(same year OGPU merges with interior ministry to become NKVD, Kirov dies this year under his protection)

30

when did Yagoda expand the Gulag system?

1930
to support industrialisation with free slave labour
(before he was head)

31

White Sea canal

1931-32
141 miles long
180,000 slaves contracted it
10,000 slaves died

32

removal of Yagoda

removed: 1936 (replaced by Yezhov)
shot: 1938
(blamed for not protecting Kirov)

33

how tall was Yezhov

5'0
"bloody dwarf'

34

Karealian Troika (court)

in 1937, they sentenced 231 prisoners a day
shows excessive purging under Yezhov/Stalin

35

Yezhov dismissal

dismissed in 1938 (replaced by Beria)
scapegoat for excessive purging

36

when was Beria made head of secret police

1938

37

changes made by Beria to Gulags

1939: raised rations (to make prisoners more productive)
made the 1000 scientists in gulags work towards space programme

38

raised economic activity of gulags under Beria

1937: 2000 million roubles
1940: 4500 million roubles
1/3 of gold now came from Gulag mines

39

purge of polish officers at Katyn during WW2

1943
SMERSH oversaw the killing of (minimum) 4,000 polish officers
Katyn forrest

40

purge of Leningrad party under Beria

1949
2000 party members purged

41

Beria's amnesty

1953
released 1 million prisoners
attempt to gain power after Stalin's death

42

When did Andropov become leader of KGB

1967

43

when was the national front formed in Lithuania

1974
(Brezhnev, Cold War)
*check book, did they invade / how many deaths*

44

new criminal code

1960
abolished nighttime raiding and sentencing without proof of acting against state

45

new criminal code scrapped

1966
(still had to be trialed before sentencing)

46

leading dissidents begin being sent to psychiatric hospitals rather than gulags

Started under Brezhnev (1964 onwards)
More common once Andropov was leader of KGB (1967 onwards)

47

Helsinki agreements 'guarantee' certain human rights

1975

48

re-enactment of the storming of the winter palace

1920
8,000 people used (not accurate)
deliberate challenge of high culture

49

when was the cultural revolution

1925 - 1932
(lifetime of the RAPP)

50

when was the Russian Association of Proletarian Writers (RAPP) closed down

1932
this was the end of cultural revolution

51

when was the saxophone banned

1940s

52

when did 'Voice of America' begin purposely broadcasting into the USSR

1955

53

when did the banned novel 'Doctor Zhivago' win a Nobel Prize

1958
epic story about Russian civil war contained some criticism and banned by Stalin

54

arrest of Sinyavsky and Daniel
(wrote short novels depicting life in USSR as harsh)

1965
demonstration of over 200 students
open letter of support for writers signed by 63 intellectuals
(Brezhnev)

55

Lenin's cult of personality (most happened after his death)

-images, statues, films and newspapers all depicted lenin as a hero
-his body was embalmed and put on display
-Petrograd renamed Leningrad 1924

56

Stalin's cult of personality 1924-1930

-links between lenin and stalin enforced
-pictures doctored to remove political opponents
-1925 a town renamed Stalingrad
-slogan "Stalin is the Lenin of today" used

57

Stalin's cult of personality 1930-1950

-images of stalin being godlike
-pictures of stalin with children --> father figure image
- images of him meeting average people --> down to earth, happy man
-family home turned into shrine, happy childhood painted (despite only seeing his mother 3 times in 40 years)
-statues, films and biographies made of stalin

58

Stalin's cult of personality 1950-1953

-many towns named after him
-cult of personality provided big image during health decline
-large celebrations for 70th birthday

59

decree separating state and church

1918
Decree in freedom of consciousness
separated the orthodox church from the state and it lost its status. deprived of its land, banned religious education outside of the home, publications outlawed

60

when did attacks on Islam begin?

1920s onwards (Lenin did not attack islam very much)

61

what % people religious in 1980s?

only 25% believed in god
far fewer engaged in religious worship

62

Mingrelian affair

1951
purge targeted at a minority which Beria belonged to (threaten him, Stalin worried he becomes too powerful)

63

when was slave labour stopped?

1953
Khrushchev

64

when was the commissariat of enlightenment (culture) founded?

1917

65

when did USSR invade Czechoslovakia

august 1968
reformist trends in Prague needed shutting down
(same year as Brezhnev's new family code)

66

protest against invasion of USSR by Czechoslovakia

1968
only 7 people actually showed up
too afraid