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Flashcards in Theme 4 (social) Deck (85)
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1

when was the Russian civil war

1918-21
(war communism same timespan)

2

decree forcing unemployed people into any offered work

1918 (war communism)

3

launch of NEP

1921
announced at 10th party congress (ended war communism)

4

rise in unemployment under NEP (since NEP didnt stress full employment like war communism)

1926: 1 million unemployed

5

when did the soviet government announce full employment

1930
first government to do so in peacetime

6

rise in hired workers under industrialisation

1926: 11.6 million
1937: 27 million

7

when was unemployment benefit cancelled

1930 (since 'full employment' had been reached)
Trade unions left to pay for sick leave / injury compensation

8

low productivity of soviet factories (early Stalin)

1927: average soviet worker produced half what the average British worker did

9

work passport system introduced

1932
Harder for people to change jobs

10

failure of work passport system

1937: 30% workers still change jobs 4 times a year

11

guarantee of employment for all soviet workers

1936 constitution

12

absenteeism made a criminal offence

1939

13

rise in gulag population after the war

1945: 1.5 million
1953: 2.5 million
prisoners of war used extensively in the reconstruction period

14

increase in population of Moscow (early Stalin)

1929: 2.2 million
1936: 4.1 million

15

increase in population of Magnitogorsk (early Stalin)

1929: 25
1932: 250,000

16

statistics to show low quality of rented units under Stalin

1936
only 6% had more than 1 room
5% of people lived in a kitchen or corridor
25% of people lived in dormitories

17

housing shortage made worse by WW2

1942-43: Stalingrad lost 90% of its housing

1941-44: siege of Leningrad, Leningrad lost 1/3 of its housing

1945: 25 million left homeless

18

typhus outbreak (early bolshevik period)

1918-20
6 million died
spread by lice

19

rise in trained doctors under Stalin

1928: 70,000 (many had fled after revolution)
1940: 155,000

20

cholera epidemic

1921
successfully contained by compulsory vaccination

21

rise in real wages under Brezhnev

1967-77
real wages rose 50%

22

increase in consumption under Khrushchev

consumption per capita increased 3.8%
1956-64

23

when was the minimum wage introduced in USSR

1957
(Khrushchev)

24

growth of party membership (caused by nomenklatura system)

1953: 7 million
1980: 17 million

25

increase in state welfare spending 1950-80

increased fivefold

26

when did peasants receive a pension

only under the Brezhnev era

27

increase in annual amount if housing space produced under Khrushchev

1951: 178 million square metres
1961: 394 million square meters
(1951 - 61 housing space doubled)
*Khrushchev slums, so not good quality*

28

rise in farmers wages under Khrushchev + Brezhnev

by the 1970s, collective farmers wages only 10% lower than industrial workers

29

uprising in Hungary leads to soviet invasion

1956
Tanks
(same year as secret speech - Hungary for change)

30

serious protests in Czechoslovakia lead to soviet invasions

1968
Military

31

high divorce rates under Brezhnev

1979
34% marriages end in divorce

32

attempted assassination of Brezhnev

1969

33

alcoholism in the 80s

1982: average adult consumes 18 litres of spirits per year (2X 1970 figure)
1987: estimated 20 million alcoholics in USSR. High levels of domestic abuse

34

early decrees made with the intention of gender equality

1917
(divorce made easier, abortion legalised, marital permission laws abolished, equal pay, maternity leave)

35

what % of divorces initiated by men?

70%
often to leave pregnant women (unwanted babies)

36

how many women fought in the Red Army (civil war)

70,000

37

campaign for the unveiling of women

1927 (targeted Muslim areas, difficult)
Lead to 'honour killings' of the women involved by their families, government forced to take a softer approach 1930

38

when did the party close down Zhenotdel

1930
claimed sexual equality had been achieved

39

rise of women in the workforce (industrialisation)

1928: 3 million
1940: 13 million

40

what % of university places were reserved for women

1929: government reserves 20% of higher education places for women (14% already women)
1940: 40% of those studying engineering were women

41

production of tanks and aircrafts in WW2

94,000 aircrafts
73,000 tanks

42

statistics to show low female involvement in the party

1932: 16% party members were women
1939: female delegates at party congress exceeds 10% for the first time

43

when were women given the vote in Russia

1917

44

1920s high abortion rates

Moscow 1920s
abortions outnumbered birthed 3:1

45

when was Stalin's great retreat

1936
- divorce more expensive
- abortion illegal
- unregistered marriage not valid
- man gays illegal

46

increase in divorce price after great retreat

1935: 4 roubles
1937: 50 roubles

47

increase in number of creche places (pre-great retreat)

creche places doubled 1928-30

48

abortion legalised again (after great retreat)

1955
Khrushchev wanted to lessen financial strain on the family

49

decline in population growth under Brezhnev

1982: population grew 0.8% per year. Average family has 2.4 children (vs 2.9 in 1959)

50

reasons for not banning alcohol in 80's (despite all the problems it made)

9% of GDP came from vodka sales

51

statistics to show how education was underfunded in early bolshevik years

teachers poorly paid
1 teacher per 40 children
only 1 pencil per 60 students provided by Narkompros

52

failures of early attempt to increase education

by 1926, the average child had just 2.77 years of education

53

when were church schools taken over by the government

1918

54

growth in number of children in education ( early Stalin)

1929: 14 million
1931: 20 million

55

schools destroyed by ww2

82,000

56

adult education under Khrushchev

1964: over 2 million adults attending Rabfaks

57

illiteracy under the Tsar

65% population illiterate
14/17 illiterate are women
88% children do not finish primary school

58

increase in literacy (Stalin - Khrushchev). urban and rural

1939: 94% and 86%
1959: 99% and 98%
(figures likely overstated but still a massive achievement)

59

when were all schools required to offer vocational courses

under Khrushchev
1955-65

60

Komsomol (Young Communist League) membership

1929: 2.3 million
1940: 10.2 million
1982: 40 million

61

labour exchanges (job centres) set up

1918
War communism, any unemployed must take all work offered to them

62

decrease in working hours

1957 Khrushchev decreases working hours
By 1960 working week 41 hours (vs 48 in 1956)

63

regular wages implemented for collective farmers

1966
(Brezhnev)

64

work passport system extended to rural population

1974
(same year Brezhnev changes economic targets to focus on cost and profit rather than production)

65

gender discrimination after civil war

many men returning were better trained than those who worked during civil war.
70% of those fired were women

66

labour shortages in first 5 year plan

1932 labour shortages
high targets + many new factories (building projects) caused labour shortage in 1932

67

how did Stalin combat labour shortages (first 5 year plan)

1931: wage different depending on skill level
1932: work passport system
1934: piecework introduced (paid by amount you produce) --> not great work incentive as little to actually buy with this money

68

living costs under Stalin

very low, most families spent less than 8% of income on rent.
Living conditions still poor (no space, electricity, hot water)

69

social benefits provided by Trade Unions

2 weeks paid holiday, often cheap subsidised vacations to state resorts
sick pay given

70

soviet healthcare

widely available, not always high quality
good sanitation (sanitary inspectors given the same status as doctors)
Not free, but low subsidised costs

71

literacy levels by 1980s

99%
caused by compulsory education for ages 7-15 (Stalin 1930)

72

protests in Poland over food prices

1980
had to use martial law

73

when was the family code

1918
gives women greater rights within marriage

74

postcard divorces made legal

started in 1926 (revoked 1936 great retreat)

1926: 50% of marriages end in divorce
(70% divorces initiated by men to leave unwanted children)

75

1944 extension on great retreat

- tax on single people
- divorce made more complex (must visit a councillor to try fix it)
- 'mother heroines' for 10+ children

76

first women to be a full member of the presidium (politburo)

Ekaterina Furtseva
1957

77

family code places restrictions on divorce (Brezhnev)

1968
- 1 month notice before a wedding can happen
- divorce illegal if woman is pregnant or has given birth within the year

78

the socially active woman

magazine targeted at the female social elite (1930s onwards)

79

women who fought in WW2

80,000
most in medical but some as pilots, machine gunners, and tank crews

80

first woman in space

Valentina Tereshkova, 1963

81

new marriage law gives equal status for registered and unregistered marriages

1927
(revoked 1936 great retreat)

82

'double burden' under Khrushchev

49% workforce women
Khrushchev traditional values stresses that women should still do all domestic work (double burden for working mums)

83

statistics to show which fields were female dominated by 1985

70% of medical doctors were women
75% of university employees were women
65% of art and culture employees were women
*pay in female dominated fields was lower*

84

statistic to show that women were only targeted for low paying jobs in late 50s/early 60s

August 1958
6400 women recruited
only 450 had well paid professional jobs

85

statistics to show low status of women in agriculture in 70s/80s

1970: 72% of the Soviet union's lowest-paid farmers were women
1980: only 2% of farm managers were women