Flashcards in Theme 3: Violence & Pacification Deck (32):
Who founded the Fenian movement and where?
James Stephens in the USA
When was the Fenian movement founded?
What did the Fenian movement believe in?
Irish Republic free of British Rule in Ireland
What was the name given to the methods the Fenian movement mostly used to achieve there goals?
What were the names of two notable members who were prepared to work with constitutionally minded nationalists?
John O'Leary and Charles Kickham
What important event for the Fenians took place in 1867?
Manchester Martyrs Incident
What was the Manchester martyrs incident?
A number of Fenians attacked a prison van attempting to free two of their Fenian Leaders. In the process a policeman was killed and a number o Fenians were executed or arrested
What were the names of the Fenian leaders who were unsuccessfully broke free in the Manchester martyrs incident?
T.J Kelly and Timothy Deasy
What was the significance of the Manchester Marty's incident?
It gained support from the Catholic Church and subsequently a greater amount of Irish followed.
What was the name of the MP and constituency that a Fenian was elected to in 1869?
Jeremiah O'Donovan Rossa (MP for Tipperary)
What were the names of two British newspapers that were strongly anti-Fenian?
Tomahawk & Punch
What was Gladstone's mission according to himself?
To pacify Ireland
What did the 1869 Irish Church Act do?
It made the Church of Ireland of voluntary membership so the Irish no longer had to give money to it or attend services
What lead to a greater Irish attitude for Home Rule in the early 1870's?
Gladstone's reforms were not achieving as much as they would like to especially after the failure of the Irish University Bill in 1873. Home rule was the best way to get things done
Who was the founder of the Irish Home Rule Party/League?
When did the Home Rule Association become a political party under the name of the Home Rule Party?
When did Parnell become president of the Home Rule Party?
Even though it is pretty obvious what was the objective of the home rule party and what methods would they use?
Irish Home Rule using constitutional methods but had backing from Fenian movement
In the 1874 general election when it won 59 seats what were the limitations of this success?
Huge anti-home rule Conservative party majority
The MP's who supported home rule were not totally committed to Home Rule and had greater concerns for their constituency. They also had to keep their seat
Conservatives used "obstructionism" to mute talk of home rule
Fenians temporarily withdrew support
Why did Parnell, an extreme member of the Home Rule Party, begin to fall out of touch with Isaac Butts approach?
Parnell wanted a more ruthless and direct political approach, contrasting to Butts timid approach.
What did Parnell name the approach he had to gaining home rule from 1880 to 1882 following Butt's death and what was it?
The "New Departure" was a more radical approach that focused on gaining a lot of support from many groups such as Fenians to be a more influential and significant force hopefully gaining home rule faster.
What were the names of the people who represented groups in support for the "New Departure" and which groups did they represent?
John Devoy, William O'Brien, John Dillon, Michael Davitt, Parnell, Willie Redmond.
What did the members of the New Departure do that lead to their imprisonment in Kilmainham jail?
Launched a fierce verbal attack upon Gladstones reforms, most notably the 1881 Land act for being too weak. Under the Irish Coercion Act they were put in jail.
What was the result of the 1882 Kilmainam treaty?
He and most of his followers agreed to become less militant and aggressive in approach. John Devoy was all about this and so he withdrew support from Parnells approach
Why was Devoy's loss not too costly?
After the Phoenix Park murders in 1882 violent methods were widely condemned and so by disassociating himself from Devoy it would maintain popularity and support for his cause.
What did Parnell create in 1882 that confirmed he was becoming more constitutional?
Irish National League
How was Parnell able to guarantee support within his party?
Through "the pledge" he was able to guarantee support and maintain an authoritarian style of control.
What major act for the Irish National Party was passed in 1884?
Representation of the People's Act, this extended the vote to 500,000 people most of which were rural Irish tenant farmers who would almost definitely all vote for the part
How may seats did the Irish National Party win in the 1885 general election?
What did Parnell negotiate in the 1882 Kilmainham treaty? And was it a success?
The release of the New Departure from Kilmainham jail and reform of the 1881 land act in return for calling an end to the no rent manifesto. This was an agreement very beneficial to his side.
What was a benefiting factor for the Irish National Party after the 1885 general election and what did they do?
They had the balance of power between the two major parties and so could use this to their advantage to gain support from them on issues. They mostly choose the Conservatives as they held a huge majority in the House of Lords that restricted Home Rule passing through.