Theoretically speaking: Speaking as Performance pg.3-10 Flashcards Preview

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Abraham Maslow- Self-Actualization

we all- as human beings- are drive to satisfy certain physical , emotional, and psychological needs. These come on hierarchy. The satisfaction of needs on one level opens the door to the satisfaction on the next level. By the end the personal has a realization of fullness of a human being in all of its complexity and richness.

what lies behind our motivation


At which level does communication sit.

Level three. that of love and belonging. Interest in other people helps with social and esteem needs and allows focus on the still higher needs.


What are the levels from bottom up ?

physiological needs
safety and security
love and belonging


physiological needs

breathing, food, water, sex, sleep, excertion


safety and secutiy

security of body, employment, resources, morality, family, family, health, property



friendship, family, sexual intimacy (giving and receiving)



Self-esteem, confidence, achievement, respect of others, respect by others, recognition



morality, creativity, spontaneity, problem-solving, lack of prejudice, acceptances of facts.



a role or character play by an actor.
-it tells us much about a speaker's ability to both captivate us and communicate to us, because in a way, speakers do conceal something behind their figurative mask. (we take on different persona's depending on the context in which we find ourselves.


Goffman- Impression Management

the regulation and control of information in social interaction.

Believes we need this to be successful and to preserving ourselves and others from embarrassment
When we are not in our own private backstage, we are all acting. .


Unspoken conventional rules - Goffman
The presentation of Self in Everyday Life

in whatever social situation, once we are aware of the social stage on which we are playing, we play by unspoken conventional rules that allow the actor to save face.


Culture, Tradition.

cultures are learned. Matters of tradition.

they are integrated systems of practices and beliefs, shared values and goals, learned behaviours and conventional symbols, used in complex social organization.

Culture is learned through tradition, experiencing it first hand by the passing through the generations.



a school of sociology. Offers helpful means of seeing how out interactions generate culture.

aimed at unlocking the "study of the methods people use for producing recognizable social orders".

focus on the subtle, unspoken culutural rules that we follow unaware- at least until those rules are breached and we feel uncomfortable.


Breaching experiments

experiments to study peoples reactions to violations of social norms.



the promotion of a variety of ethnic traditions in a broader cultural context.



below the threshold of conscious awareness.

a great deal of what people take away from a speaker is subliminal on an unconscious level. meaning that althought he speaker may say one thing, the audience may take an different message depending on what the speaking is doing at the time of speaker .


Persona- Jung talks about five "archetypes" of the psyche

-self (site of individuation)
--Shadow (hidden or repressed part)
---anima, animus (Female/male part)
----persona (what we present to the world
-----impression on others , while concealing the self.