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Flashcards in Theories on Gender Roles Deck (16)
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What were Oakley's views on the symmetrical family?

Oakley believed that the family isn't symmetrical because women still have to do most of the housework. She argues men only help out with the positive aspects of family life e.g playing with the children, taking them on school trips, etc. She argues that the housewife role remains dominant for women and even when women do work, their work is a low paid, extension of the housewife role e.g nursing


What were Boulton's views on the symmetrical family? (Feminist)

Boulton believed that Willmott and Young exaggerate the extent of men's contribution - women still do most of the childcare tasks


What were Warde and Hetherington's views on the symmetrical family? (Feminist)

Warde and Hetherington believed that sex typing is still common, men only do routine 'female tasks' when women aren't there


What were Ferri and Smith's views on gender roles? (Feminist)

Women have the double burden of paid employment and unpaid domestic labour


What were Duncombe and Marsden's views on gender roles? (Feminist)

They believed that women have the 'triple shift' where they have the additional burden of emotion work, as well as unpaid domestic labour and paid employment.


What were Southerton's views on gender roles? (Feminist)

Southerton argues that women are responsible for managing family time however this is now difficult due to social changes e.g flexible working hours mean it is hard to find a time where the entire family can spend time together


What were Gatrell's views on gender roles? (Feminist)

Gatrell argues that men are now more involved in children's upbringing because marital breakdowns can occur however a parental relationship lasts forever. However, Gatrell also argues that men only choose to do this in order to avoid doing housework


What were Dunne's views on gender roles? (Feminist)

Argues that the division of labour continues due to gender scripts, which are societal expectations of men and women. This means that in a heterosexual relationship, they are under more pressure to conform to gender scripts however lesbian relationships are more symmetrical.


What were Morris' views on gender roles? (Feminist)

Morris conducted a study where he found that men avoided doing housework because since they were unemployed, they feel they lost their masculinity therefore doing housework will further decrease their masculinity.


What were Ramos' views on gender roles? (Feminist)

Conducted a study where he discovered that unemployed men did the same amount of domestic labour as employed women however argues that men should be doing more than women in paid employment.


Who believed that men only help out due to a sense of responsibility towards their partners? (Feminist)

Braun, Vincent and Ball


What did Braun, Vincent and Ball believe?

Men only help out due to a sense of responsibility towards their partners


Who says that there has been a move towards the symmetrical family?

Willmott and Young


What are Willmott and Young's views on gender roles within the family?

They take a "march of progress" view and argue that family life is becoming more egalitarian

There has been a shift from segregated to joint conjugal roles which they refer to as the 'symmetrical family'

This has been formed due to joint childcare, housework, decisions, shared leisure time and working outside the home.


What are Parsons views on the family?

Argues that segregated divison of labour is natural and due to biological differences which mean that men have the instrumental role (breadwinner) and women have the expressive role (housewife). The segregated division of labour benefits everyone.


Who believes that the segregated division of labour benefits everyone?