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Gross Anatomy > Thorax > Flashcards

Flashcards in Thorax Deck (83):
1

 Region of the body between the neck and the abdomen
 Separated from the abdomen by the diaphragm
 Flattened antero-posteriorly and rounded at the sides

Thorax

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Framework of the walls of the thorax

Thoracic cage

3

Functions of thoracic cage

- Protect vital thoracic and abdominal organs
- Provides attachment of neck, back upper limb, and abdominal musculature

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Covered on the outside by skin and by muscles attached the shoulder girdle to the trunk

Thoracic wall

5

Lining of thoracic wall

Parietal pleura

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Bones forming the thoracic cage

- Anteriorly: sternum and costal cartilages
- Posteriorly: vertebral column
- Laterally: ribs and intercostal spaces

7

Bones forming the thoracic wall

- Anteriorly: sternum and costal cartilages
- Posteriorly: vertebral column
- Laterally: ribs and intercostal spaces
- Superiorly: suprapleural membrane
- Inferiorly: diaphragm

8

2 thoracic apertures

Thoracic inlet/ superior thoracic aperture
Thoracic outlet/ inferior thoracic aperture

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Boundaries of thoracic inlet

Anteriorly: superior border of the manubrium
Posteriorly: T1 vertebra
Laterally: medial border of the 1st pair of ribs and their costal cartilages

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thoracic aperture Where esophagus, trachea, and many vessels and nerves pass through

Thoracic inlet

11

Thoracic aperture where closed by the diaphragm

Thoracic outlet

12

Boundaries of thoracic outlet

Anteriorly: xiphisternal joint
Posteriorly: T12 vertebra
Anterolaterally: costal cartilages of 7th to 10th ribs (costal margin)
Posterolaterally: 11th and 12th ribs

13

 Spaces between the ribs
 12 ribs, therefore 11 ______ – numbered for the rib superior to the space

Intercostal spaces

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3 muscles of respiration

External intercostal muscles
Internal intercostal muscles
Innermost intercostal muscles

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Neurovascular bundle

Intercostal vein
Intercostal artery
Intercostal nerve

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3 major spaces of thoracic cavity

Mediastinum and 2 pulmonary cavities

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Thoracic cavity space where it Contains heart, trachea, thymus, esophagus, and lymph nodes

Mediastinum

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2 membranous sacs, one on each side of the thorax between the lungs and the thoracic walls

Pulmonary cavity

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Bone that Lies in the midline of the anterior chest wall

sternum

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Another term for sternum

Breastbone

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Type of bone: sternum

Flat bone

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3 parts of sternum

Manubrium
Body of the sternum
Xiphoid process

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Articulating surfaces of manubrium

 Clavicle
 1st costal cartilage
 Body of sternum
 Upper part of the 2nd costal cartilage

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Articulating surfaces of body of the sternum

 Manubrium
 Xiphoid process
 2nd to 7th costal cartilages

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scalloped borders where costal cartilages articulate

Costal notches

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Thin plate of cartilage that ossifies at proximal end during adult life

xiphoid process

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Articulating surfaces of xiphoid process

Body of sternum

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Joints of the sternum

Sternoclavicular
Manubriosternal
Xiphisternal

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Type of joint: sternoclavicular

synovial joint: saddle

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Type of joint: manubriosternal

Secondary cartilaginous joint

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Type of joint: xiphisternal

Primary cartilaginous joint

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Articulations of: sternoclavicular

Manubrium + clavicle

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Articulations of: manubriosternal

Manubrium + body of sternum

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Articulations of: xiphisternal

Body of sternum + xiphoid process

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Important clinically because this serves as the point from which all costal cartilages and ribs are counted

Sternal angle/angle of Louis

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Invertebral disc opposite of sternal angle

T4 and T5

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12 pairs of curved, flat bones that form most of the thoracic cage that Serves as attachment for muscles

Ribs

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Rib
 can cause pressure on lower trunk of brachial plexus -> pain and muscle wasting
 exert pressure on subclavian artery -> interfere with circulation

Cervical rib

39

Arises from anterior tubercle of transverse process of C7; May have anterior free end, or connect with 1st rib via fibrous band, or articulate with 1st rib

Cervical rib

40

3 categories of ribs

True (Vertebrosternal)
False (Vertebrochondral)
Floating (Vertebral, free)

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Ribs
- Attach anteriorly to the sternum through their own costal cartilages
- Directly connect to sternum

True ribs

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Ribs
- Attached anteriorly to each other and to the 7th rib by means of their costal cartilages and small synovial joints
- Costal cartilages are connected to the cartilage of the rib above them
- Indirectly connect to sternum

False ribs

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Ribs
- No anterior connections, no connection with sternum
- Rudimentary cartilage at posterior abdominal musculature

Floating ribs

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2 types of rib

Typical and Atypical

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 3rd to 9th ribs
 long, twisted, flat bone
 rounded, smooth superior border and a sharp, thin inferior border

Typical rib

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Parts of typical rib

Head
Neck
Tubercle
Shaft/Body

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Part of typical rib: wedge shaped; has 2 facets for articulation – separated by crest of the head

Head

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Part of typical rib: constricted portion that connects head with the shaft

Neck

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Part of typical rib: prominence on outer surface of rib; at junction of neck and body

Tubercle

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Part of typical rib: thin, flattened; twisted on its long axis

Shaft/Body

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Internal border of shaft which houses the intercostal vein, artery, and nerve

Costal groove

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Angle of shaft where ribs turn anterolaterally

Costal angle

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2 parts of tubercle

Articular part and Non-articular part

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2 facets of head

Superior and inferior

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Atypical ribs

1st, 2nd, 10th, 11th, and 12th ribs

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broadest, shortest, most sharply curved of the 7 true ribs

1st rib

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Why is the 1st rib clinically significant?

Clinically significant because the subclavian vessels and branches of the brachial plexus pass through its superior border

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Rib
- thinner, less curved body, longer than 1st rib
- atypical feature: rough area on upper surface – tuberosity for serratus anterior

2nd rib

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Ribs that are short but no neck and tubercle

11th and 12th ribs

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Rib with no costal angle and costal groove

12th rib

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ribs with only 1 facet

1st and 10th rib

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Articulations of the rib

Costovertebral
Costochondral
Interchondral
Sternocostal

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Type of joint: costovertebral

synovial joint: plane

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Type of joint: chostochondral

primary cartilaginous joint

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Type of joint: interchondral

synovial joint: plane

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Type of joint: STERNOCOSTAL - 1st costal cartilage + manubrium sterni

primary cartilaginous joint

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Type of joint: STERNOCOSTAL - 2nd-7th costal cartilages + body of sternum

synovial joint: plane

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Articulations of costochondrla

lateral end of costal cartilage with sternal end of rib

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T or F: In children: ribs are high elastic --> fractures are rare

T

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Weakest part of ribs in adults

costal angle

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Most commonly fractured ribs

5th to 10th ribs

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accumulation of air in the pleural space

pneumothorax

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Multiple rib fractures may allow a sizable segment of the anterior and/or lateral thoracic wall to move freely

Flail chest

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Movements of thoracic wall and the diaphragm increases the intrathoracic volume and diameters of the thorax

Inspiration

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2 types of inspiration and expiration

Quiet and forced

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Movement: when diaphragm contracts, domes become flattened and diaphragm is lowered

Vertical Diameter

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Downward-sloping ribs are raised at sternal ends
 anteroposterior diameter is increased
 lower end of sternum is thrust forward

Pump-handle movement

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Ribs curve downward as well forward around the chest wall

Bucket handle movement

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Maximum increase in capacity of thoracic cavity occurs

Forced inspiration

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Every muscle that can raise the ribs are brought into forced inspiration

scalenus anterior, scalenus medius, and the sternocleidomastoid

81

Decrease of the capacity of the thoracic cavity

Expiration

82

muscles – play a minor role in pulling down lower ribs in quiet expiration

serratus posterior inferior muscles

83

muscles – play a minor role in forced expiration

serratus posterior inferior and latissimus dorsi