Vertebral Column Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Vertebral Column Deck (95):
1

Central bony pillar of the body; 72 to 75 cm in length (1/4 is formed by the IV discs)

Vertebral column

2

Functions of vertebral column

Support
Protection
Locomotion

3

Regions of vertebral column

Cervical
Thoracic
Lumbar
Sacral
Coccygeal

4

No. of vertebrae in: cervical

7

5

No. of vertebrae in: thoracic

12

6

No. of vertebrae in: lumbar

5

7

No. of vertebrae in: sacral

5 (fused)

8

No. of vertebrae in: coccygeal

4 (lower three fused)

9

Parts of vertebra

Body
Vertebral arch
Seven processes

10

Anterior part of the vertebra

Body

11

Posterior to the vertebral body and enclosed the vertebral foramen

Vertebral arch

12

Gives rise to 7 processes

Vertebral arch

13

2 parts of vertebral arch

Pedicles and laminae

14

attached to the vertebral body forming the sides of the arch

Pedicles

15

- flattened
- attached to the pedicle
- completing the arch posteriorly

Laminae

16

Where the spinal cord and its coverings run though

Vertebral foramen

17

Contains the spinal cord and the roots of the spinal nerves, along with the meninges, fat, and vessels that surround and serve them

Vertebral canal

18

Formed by the succession of vertebral foramina in the articulated vertebral column

Vertebral canal

19

Notch on the upper and lower border of the pedicles that are formed by the projection of the body (anteriorly) and the articulating processes (posteriorly)

Vertebral notch

20

The superior notch of one vertebra + inferior notch of an adjacent vertebra = ?

intervertebral foramina

21

Serve to transmit spinal nerves and blood vessels and Where anterior and posterior nerve roots of a spinal nerve unite to form the segmental spinal nerves

intervertebral foramina

22

Types of processes

Spinous process
Transverse process
Articular process

23

Process:
- Median
- Projects posteriorly from the vertebral arch at the junction of the laminae

Spinous process

24

Number of spinous process

1

25

Process: Directed laterally from the junction of the pedicles and laminae

Transverse process

26

Number of transverse process

2

27

T or F: Both spinous and transverse processes serve as levers and attachments of muscles and ligaments, facilitating the muscles that fix or change the position of the vertebrae

T

28

Process:
- Vertically arranged
- Consist of 2 superior and 2 inferior processes
- Arise from the junction of the laminae and the pedicles

Articular process

29

Number of articular process

4

30

Articular surfaces are covered with _______

hyaline cartilage

31

Assist in keeping adjacent vertebrae aligned, preventing one vertebra from slipping anteriorly

Articular processes

32

Typical cervical vertebrae

C3-C6

33

Vertebrae from the skeleton of the neck

Cervical vertebrae

34

T or F: the vertebral artery passes through the transverse processes of C1 to C7.

F, C1 to C6, not C7

35

Atypical cervical vertebra

C1, C2, C7

36

– atlas
- Body: no body
- Vertebral arch: has an anterior and posterior arch – ring-shaped bone

C1

37

– axis
- Has a peg-like odontoid process (dens) that projects from the superior surface of the body
- The dens represents the body of the atlas that has fused with the body of the axis

C2

38

Called the vertebra prominens because its prominent – palpable at the back of the neck

C7

39

 For articulation with the ribs
 Found in transverse process – for articulation with tubercle of rib
 Found in vertebral body – on the sides, for articulation with head of rib

costal facets

40

- In the upper back and provide attachment for the ribs
- Body: medium-sized, and heart-shaped

Thoracic vertebra

41

In the lower back, between the thorax and the sacrum
- Body: massive (because of the weight they support), and kidney-shaped

Lumbar vertebra

42

Largest lumbar vertebra

L5

43

anterior projection of the upper margin of S1; posterior margin of the pelvic inlet; signals the beginning of the rectum, also used in measuring the size of the pelvis in females

Sacral promontory

44

formed by the vertebral foramina, extension of the vertebral canal
- contains the anterior and posterior roots of the sacral and coccygeal spinal nerves, filum terminale, and fibrofatty material
- also contains the lower part of the subarachnoid space down as far as the lower border of S2

Sacral canal

45

Consists of five rudimentary vertebrae fused together to form a wedge-shaped bone; Concave anteriorly

Sacrum

46

The sacral vertebra contains how many foramina on each side?

4

47

Longitudinal ridges of the sacral vertebra

Median sacral crest
Intermediate sacral crest
Lateral sacral crest

48

the laminae of S5 (and sometimes S4) fail to meet in the midline forming a space/ hiatus

Sacral hiatus

49

Consists of four vertebrae fused together to form a single, small, triangular bone

Coccyx

50

T or F: Only thoracic and sacral curvature remain kyphotic throughout life – these are the primary curves

T

51

Curvature that develop during fetal development

Primary curvature

52

The angles or the curvature form during fetal period but become prominent after infancy

Secondary curvature

53

2 primary ligaments of the vertebral column

Anterior longitudinal ligament
Posterior longitudinal ligament

54

Fibrous band that covers and connects the anterolateral aspects of the vertebral bodies and iv discs

Anterior longitudinal ligament

55

Prevents hyperextension of the vertebral column; Found outside of the vertebral canal

Anterior longitudinal ligament

56

Weak and narrow, attached to the posterior border of the discs; Runs within the vertebral canal along the posterior aspect of the vertebral bodies

Posterior longitudinal ligament

57

Upward continuation of PLL at level of atlantoaxial joint

Tectorial membrane

58

Prevents hyperflexion of vertebral column; Helps prevent or redirect posterior herniation of nucleus pulposus

Posterior longitudinal ligament

59

Accessory ligaments

Ligamentum flavum
Interspinous ligaments
Supraspinous ligament
Ligamemtum nuchae
Intratransverse ligaments

60

in the cervical region, the supraspinous and interspinous ligaments are greatly thickened to form the strong __________

ligamemtum nuchae

61

Ligament: Elastic tissue that joins together laminae of adjacent vertebral arches

Ligamemtum flavum

62

Ligament: Connects adjoining spinous processes (attaching from the root to the apex of each process)

Interspinous ligament

63

Ligament: Cord-like band that connects the tips of the spinous processeses from C7 to the sacrum

Supraspinous ligament

64

Ligament: Strong and broad; thickened fibroelastic tissue that extends from the spine of C7 to the external occipital protuberance of the skull, with its anterior border being strongly attached to the cervical spines in between

Ligament nuchae

65

Ligament: Connects one transverse process to another

Intratransverse ligament

66

Main structures that bind together the vertebral bodies

Intervertebral disc

67

Responsible for ¼ (20-25%) the length of the vertebral column

Intervertebral disc

68

Number of invertebral discs

23

69

Serve as shock absorbers when the load on the vertebral column is suddenly increased (e.g. when jumping from a height); Elasticity allows the rigid vertebrae to move one on the other (resilience is lost gradually with age)

Intervertebral discs

70

Parts of intervertebral disc

Annulus fibrosus
Nucleus pulposus

71

Peripheral part of the intervertebral disc and is composed of fibrocartilage.

Annulus fibrosus

72

Central part of the invertebral disc and contains an ovoid mass of gelatinous material containing a large amount of water, small amount of collagen fibers, and a few cartilage cells in children and adolescents

Nucleus pulposus

73

Joints of the vertebral column

Atlanto-occipital joint
Atlanto-axial joint

74

Type of joint: atlanto-occipital joint

Synovial: condyloid

75

Type of joint: atlanto-axial

Synovial: Pivot

76

atlanto-occipital joint movements

Flexion, extensions, lateral flexion, NO ROTATION possible

77

atlanto-occipital joint articulations

occipital condyles of the skull (superior) + superior surfaces of the lateral masses of the atlas (inferior)

78

Ligaments of the atlanto-occipital joint

anterior and posterior atlanto-occipital membrane

79

Connects anterior arch of atlas to the anterior margin of the foramen magnum

Anterior atlanto-occipital membrane

80

Connects posterior arch of atlas to the posterior margin of the foramen magnum

posterior atlanto-occipital membrane

81

Atlantoaxial joint articulation

 odontoid process + anterior arch of the atlas (1 joint)
 lateral masses of the bones (2 joints)

82

Atlantoaxial joint movement

Extensive rotation of atlas

83

Ligaments of atlantoaxial joint

Apical
Alar
Cruciate
Membrana tectoria

84

Connects the apex of the odontoid process to the anterior margin of the foramen magnum

Apical ligament

85

Connects the odontoid process to the medial sides of the occipital condyles

Alar ligament

86

attached one on each side of the inner aspect of the lateral mass of the atlas
- binds to the odontoid process to the anterior arch of the atlas

Transverse ligament

87

Covers the posterior surface of the odontoid process and the apical, alar, and crucial ligaments

Membrana tectoria

88

Procedure done at the level of L4 to:
- Withdraw a sample of cerebrospinal fluid for examination
- For clinical diagnosis
- Introduce drugs
- Remove excess CSF

Lumbar tap

89

Structures traversed by spinal needle

1. Skin
2. Superficial fascia
3. Supraspinous ligament
4. Interspinous ligament
5. Ligamentum flavum
6. Areolar tissue (containing internal vertebral venous plexus in epidural space)
7. Dura mater
8. Arachnoid mater
9. Subarachnoid space

90

Why is the lumbar tap at the level of L4?

at lower lumbar part of vertebral canal the subarachnoid space only contains the cauda equine  a needle introduced at this level usually just pushes the nerve roots to the side without causing damage

91

Clinical condition:
- Spinous process, laminae, and inferior articular process separate from the body pedicles and the superior articular process
-Common in adolescent athletes

Spondylosis

92

Clinical condition:
- Body of a lower lumbar vertebra (usually L5), moves forward on the body of the vertebra below and carries with it the whole of the upper portion of the vertebral column

Spondylolisthesis

93

Clinical condition:
Pedicles are abnormally formed and accessory centers of ossification are present and fail to unite

Congenital spondylolisthesis

94

Clinical condition:
- Common in elderly
- Involves degeneration of the IV discs in the lumbar region and osteoarthritis of the intervertebral joints

Degenerative spondylolisthesis

95

Protusion of nucleus pulposus; Disc most commonly affected are those in areas where a mobile part of the column joins a relatively mobile part

HERNIATION OF INTERVERTEBRAL DISC