What is the calling card for obesity's rise ?
Obesity is on the rise like never before Our children are being affected Health care costs will soar as population ages and obesity causes more complications We need to develop public health strategies now to combat this and SAVE OUR CHILDREN Obesity has become a global epidemic. With the growing evidence that our children are heavier than in any other decade, there is an increased need to develop public health strategies that focus on children and adolescents.
Health care costs will soar as the current population ages and health conditions related to obesity become more prevalent.
What should adults focus on when it comes to weight loss?
Gradual weight loss, decreased calorie intake, adequate nutrient intake and increased physical activity. Once achieved, the long term goal should be maintenance of a healthy weight.
What are the three components to weight loss and weight maintenance that must be implemented to be successful.
control of calories,
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What tools are useful in helping to control calorie intake?
You must change your mindset from the short term to the long term and think of calorie control in terms of lifestyle changes in relation to food and dietary intake that can be followed for the rest of your life.
Limiting your calorie intake is important. Females should not limit their intake to less than 1200 calories daily and males to no less than 1500 calories per day. With consumptions lower than this it is difficult to meet all your nutrient needs.
Label reading and comparing labels is a great tool
keeping food records and measuring portion sizes can also be helpful.(Studies have found that people who record everything they eat in a journal are more successful at weight loss and maintenance)
When looking at labels and comparing products remember that calories are important, regardless of whether they come from fat, carbohydrates or protein.
In many products the calorie difference between the low fat product and the regular product are marginal. To make up for the lack of fat, extra sugar or salt may be added to make the product tastier.
Benefits of physical activty........
what is the daily recommended amount ?
Physical activity can decrease your stress level, improve your mood, increase productivity, maintain bone health and increase lean body mass which in turns leads to more efficient use of calories even at rest.
60-90 minutes of continuous or noncontinuous activity a day, aloing with 10000 steps
Resistance exercises will build muscle and lean body mass. Although you may not see a change in the number on the scale, you will be toning your body. At the same time you will be preserving bone mass to help fight osteoporosis later in life.
How is behavior modification important to weight loss and maintenance?
Some behaviors lead us to eat more while doing a certain activity or we connect an activity with food. Modifying and breaking these behaviors can be a big factor in promoting weight loss and maintaining weight. We need to understand our eating habits.
Regarding behavior modification, give an example of chain breaking ?
breaking the tie that connects two or more behaviors that encourage over eating. For example: instead of munching on snacks while watching TV, limit yourself to eating only in the kitchen while seated at the table.
Give an example of stimulus control ?
a way to avoid temptation when we are hungry or bored. For example not buying convenience foods that you are fond of, or limiting yourself to one small piece of chocolate daily.
Cognitive restructuring ...
changing your frame of mind regarding food. Rather than turning to food when you are stressed, you decide to exercise instead. After the exercise, if you still want to eat something, allow yourself a small portion of that food.
preparing for situations that might trigger over eating such as a party or donuts at the office. If you have a board meeting to attend and you know the boss will be bringing in donuts, offer to bake a low fat coffee cake as an alternative for those trying to watch their weight.
keep a diary for several days, recording what you eat, when you eat it, how you felt and where you were when you ate. This helps to reveal patterns that may be negatively affecting your weight loss efforts.
In addition to behavior modification, what other factors are important to losing weight and not regaining it ?
social support is also a key for weight loss and maintenance. This support could include family and friends, social programs and professional help
Consulting with dieticians, excercise physiologists, physicians, engaging in strength training programs. All are useful and beneficial because you are gaining more knowledge and support to help you along the way
Who may require drastic weight loss measures and what are some of these methods?
ndividuals with a BMI greater than 30 or greater than 27 with comorbid health risks, referred to as morbid obesity, may require drastic weight loss measures. This could include medications, extremely low calorie diets and or surgery.
What are the three classes of medications being used to treat obesity?
amphetamines, appetite reduction drugs and fat absorption inhibitors
What effects do amphetamines have ?
The amphetamines stimulate the central nervous system and burn calories. These are only used short term as they can be abused and a person may develop a dependency.
What is meridia medication?
Meridia is approved by the FDA and decreases hunger sensations. The moderate reduction in appetite is helpful to people who eat a fairly healthy diet but consume excess quantities.
What is Orlistat or Xenical and what does it do?
The third medication approved by the FDA, decreases fat absorption. This drug is Orlistat, also known as Xenical. This medication inhibits lipase enzyme from digesting fat in the small intestine. This results in approximately a third of our dietary fat intake not being absorbed. The fat then passes out of the body in the feces. Side effects include gas, bloating and diarrhea if excess fat is consumed while taking this medication. A low dose form of Orlistat, Alli is available over the counter. In addition to medications, very low calorie diets may be followed.
In addition to medications, for those in need of extreme weight loss measures, what else may be followed?
Very low calorie diets with careful direction by a physician.....
Only 400 to 800 calories per day are allowed, low carbohydrate and high protein, often in liquid form
What is bariatrics?
Surgery focused on the treatment of obesity, which may be the case when medications and diets fail.
What is gastric banding ?
A restrictive bariatric surgery where the opening from the esophagus to the stomach is restricted using a gastric band and this forms a small pouch in the stomach. The band can be inflated or deflated to control the amount of food a person can consume and still be comfortable.
What is gastroplasty ?
Gastroplasty or stomach stapling works by reducing the stomach capacity and bypassing a small portion of the small intestine. The stomach can now only hold 30 milliliters or the volume of 1 egg. For the majority of individuals who undergo this form of surgery, a weight loss of approximately 50% of their weight occurs. Individuals feel full quickly and learn not to over eat or the result is abdominal discomfort and vomiting.
gastric banding and gastroplasty - are they last resort options? what are some health risks?
Both have been proven to be effective for weight loss but again must be performed only after extensive consultation with a physician, and behavior modification techniques must be encouraged. Extensive counseling and a patient’s history are reviewed prior to the surgery approval. Health risks include bleeding, clots, hernias, infection, nutrient deficiencies and increased risk of death. The procedure is costly and may involve additional surgery to remove excess skin once weight loss is achieved. The client needs to thoroughly understand the risks associated with the procedure and be willing to make lifestyle changes, including adding exercise to their daily activities.
What BMI defines being underweight?
Underweight is defined as a BMI of < 18.5.
A low body weight can be related to genetics, you inherit a small frame size, or to a disease stat, such as Irritable Bowel disease, in which there is a disruption of the absorptive process and the nutrients as well as calories pass through your GI tract without being absorbed.
Other causes could include infectious diseases such as AIDS, cancer or excessive dieting and exercise related to an eating disorder.
What are some suggestions to increasing your weight?
Suggestions to increase weight include, adding healthy snacks several times daily, drinking beverages that are nutritious as well as a good calorie source, adding healthy fats to meals and limiting fluid consumption to delay satiety.
What are some risks with being underweight?
Just as there are risks to being overweight there are also risks related to being underweight..
In females loss of too much body fat will lead to cessation of the menstrual period. Once this occurs it can have long term health effects, including loss of bone mass, putting even young women at risk for fractures. Low body weight can also adversely affect your immune system causing complications from surgery or delayed wound healing from an illness. If the low body weight is due to genetics and the person is otherwise healthy, there is little need to worry.
What are characteristics of fad diets ?
1. They promote quick weight loss. While true you may shed the weight quickly, it is water weight and not fat that is being lost.
2. They use celebrities or actors impersonating medical personnel to sell their product.
3. Food selections are limited and often you are encouraged to avoid one or more food groups.
4. They are expensive and often encourage you to buy nutritional supplements.
5. They claim to cure all. Not only do they claim you will lose weight but also that you will have more energy, a better sex life and decreased stress
6. More importantly they do not recognize the role of exercise or behavior modification in weight loss.
What are the 4 categories that fad diets fall under?
moderate calorie restriction, carbohydrate focused, low-fat or novelty.
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What does the moderate calorie restriction category of fad diets entail?
imits calories to 1200-1800 per day. If the plan includes a wide variety of foods from all food groups and encourages exercise it may be an acceptable weight loss plan. Examples of this type of diet include: Weight Watchers, Jenny Craig, Dr. Phil’s Ultimate Weight Solution and Dieting for Dummies.
Low Carbohydrate category of fad diets entails ..........
most of these diets have a severe carbohydrate restriction which causes the body to turn to stored glycogen and protein for energy. This can lead to weight loss but also ketosis, constipation, headaches and muscle cramps. The weight that is lost is water weight. Failure usually occurs related to boredom with the diet. Several well-known low carbohydrate diets include the Atkins, South Beach, Zone and Nutrisystem.
Recently there has been more emphasis on the glycemic load. Carbs are limited but emphasis is placed on low glycemic index foods such as whole grains, fruits and vegetables and limiting the high glycemic index foods. While not perfect, it is a more reasonable diet to follow and long term success has been achieved. Examples of this type of diet include the New Glucose Revolution and the GI Diet.
What does the low fat category of fad diets entail?
this diet eliminates animal protein sources and oils. The focus is on fruit, vegetables and grains. This can be a very healthful way of eating but with fat restricted to < 20% of calorie intake, it can get very monotonous. Improvement in cholesterol and blood pressure are benefits if people can follow this approach. Examples include The Ornish or Pritikin diets, T Factor Diet and Eat More Weigh Less.
What is the novelty category of fad diets ?
this type of diet focuses on a gimmick. They promote certain foods or types of foods as having special weight loss qualities. There is no scientific evidence to back up any claims. Examples include The Cabbage Soup Diet, The Beverly Hills Diet and The Cookie Diet. The bottom line with this type of diet, the weight loss results from lack of calories not from the foods that are promoted. They are not nutritionally balanced and may lead to malnutrition if followed for long periods of time.
What is the goal when it comes to weight loss and evaluating a weight loss plan and diet?
The goal is to help you achieve a healthy weight slowly that will lead to lifelong healthy eating habits and a decreased risk of disease.