Flashcards in Tissue Biomechanics Deck (40):
The study of how different parts of the human body, such as bone, tendons, and muscle, react to external forces.
Mechanical forces play and important role in the ______, ______, and _____ of tissue as well as the development of ______ and _____.
Damage and disease
Combination of tensile and compressive loads.
Forces twisting/rotating in opposite directions about the long axis
Forces acting parallel to each other in opposite directions.
When a structure is stretched longitudinally.
When a load produces a force that push the material together.
Nearly constant compressive forces are applied to what area of the body?
Vertebral body and IVD
What are some compression injuries? (4)
Stretching or pulling force of tension can also be called what?
When do tensile forces occur in the IVD?
During rotational movements
What part of the IVD tends to bear the tensile loads?
What are some tension injuries?
Nerve traction injuries
What bones are at most risk for fracture?
What are examples of cancellous bones that are at most risk for fracture?
Femoral condyle and tibial plateaus
In the spine what RESIST shear forces?
facet joints and
Fibers of the annulus fibrosus
What are examples of shear injuries? (4)
tibiofemoral translation injuries such as ACL/PCL
Excessive rotational force can result in failure of what?
Any of the elements that resist rotation.
What are some examples of things that can happen in a torsion injury? (5)
-Impacted facet joint
circumferential tears of the annulus fibrosis
Spiral fractures of long bones
Bending is a combination of what two types of forces?
Compression and tension
Fractures to long bones frequently occur through which mechanism?
What are common tissue responses to mechanical loading/force? (3)
growth and remodeling
When acted on by external forces, objects ______ and/or _____ in the direction of the net force/torque.
Local shape change under the effect of applied force is known as what?
If an object is in static equilibrium, then it is most likely that there will be some _______ within the object.
Local shape change
The extent of deformation depends of what factors? (4)
Size and shape of object
Environmental factors (heat/humidity)
Force (magnitude, direction , duration)
Magnitude of deformation as a result of the applied stress/loading.
Measures the intensify of the force.
A measure of the degree of deformation.
The amount of external force acting to deform the material.
The proportional graph, what is on the side going up? What is along the bottom? Stress/strain
stress - side
Strain - bottom
Have you checked out the graphs for stress/strain in your notes?
No? Go look....
What three other qualities does the graph show?
Strength, futility, and toughness
The maximum stress a tissue can withstand without permanent deformation.
Stress at the yield point of a material beyond which PERMANENT DEFORMATION will occur.
The maximal stress that a material can withstand prior to the initiation of failure.
The stress at which the material actually breaks or ruptures.
Force per unit area required to deform material, represented by the STEEPNESS (slope) of the stress/strain curve.
Tissues fail at a low stress but can withstand a large strain.