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Biomechanics Exam 1 > Tissue Biomechanics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Tissue Biomechanics Deck (40):
1

The study of how different parts of the human body, such as bone, tendons, and muscle, react to external forces.

Tissue biomechanics

2

Mechanical forces play and important role in the ______, ______, and _____ of tissue as well as the development of ______ and _____.

Development
Maintenance
Remodeling

Damage and disease

3

Combination of tensile and compressive loads.

bending

4

Forces twisting/rotating in opposite directions about the long axis

torsion

5

Forces acting parallel to each other in opposite directions.

shear

6

When a structure is stretched longitudinally.

Tension/tensile

7

When a load produces a force that push the material together.

Compression.

8

Nearly constant compressive forces are applied to what area of the body?

Vertebral body and IVD

9

What are some compression injuries? (4)

Bruises (contusions)
Crushing injuries
Compression fractures
pinching

10

Stretching or pulling force of tension can also be called what?

distraction

11

When do tensile forces occur in the IVD?

During rotational movements

12

What part of the IVD tends to bear the tensile loads?

Annular fibers

13

What are some tension injuries?

Spain/strain
avulsion fractures
Nerve traction injuries

14

What bones are at most risk for fracture?

cancellous bones

15

What are examples of cancellous bones that are at most risk for fracture?

Femoral condyle and tibial plateaus

16

In the spine what RESIST shear forces?

facet joints and
Fibers of the annulus fibrosus

17

What are examples of shear injuries? (4)

Brain injuries
tibiofemoral translation injuries such as ACL/PCL
Blisters
Spine injuries

18

Excessive rotational force can result in failure of what?

Any of the elements that resist rotation.

19

What are some examples of things that can happen in a torsion injury? (5)

Fracture of:
-Impacted facet joint
-pars interarticularis
Capsular tears
circumferential tears of the annulus fibrosis
Spiral fractures of long bones

20

Bending is a combination of what two types of forces?

Compression and tension

21

Fractures to long bones frequently occur through which mechanism?

bending

22

What are common tissue responses to mechanical loading/force? (3)

Deformation
growth and remodeling
failure

23

When acted on by external forces, objects ______ and/or _____ in the direction of the net force/torque.

Translate
rotate

24

Local shape change under the effect of applied force is known as what?

deformation

25

If an object is in static equilibrium, then it is most likely that there will be some _______ within the object.

Local shape change

26

The extent of deformation depends of what factors? (4)

Material properties
Size and shape of object
Environmental factors (heat/humidity)
Force (magnitude, direction , duration)

27

Magnitude of deformation as a result of the applied stress/loading.

Strain

28

Measures the intensify of the force.

stress

29

A measure of the degree of deformation.

strain

30

The amount of external force acting to deform the material.

stress

31

The proportional graph, what is on the side going up? What is along the bottom? Stress/strain

stress - side
Strain - bottom

32

Have you checked out the graphs for stress/strain in your notes?

No? Go look....

33

What three other qualities does the graph show?

Strength, futility, and toughness

34

The maximum stress a tissue can withstand without permanent deformation.

strength

35

Stress at the yield point of a material beyond which PERMANENT DEFORMATION will occur.

Yield strength

36

The maximal stress that a material can withstand prior to the initiation of failure.

Ultimate strength

37

The stress at which the material actually breaks or ruptures.

Failure strength

38

Force per unit area required to deform material, represented by the STEEPNESS (slope) of the stress/strain curve.

ductility

39

Tissues fail at a low stress but can withstand a large strain.

Ductile (pliant)

40

Tissue can withstand high stress but fail with relatively low strain.

Brittle (stiff)