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Flashcards in Topic 1 Deck (14):

Why do low latitude locations receive more heat than places closer to the poles?

The suns rays are more scattered as you move away from the equator. This is because the curvature of the earth means places closer to the poles face away from the sun.


How is a high pressure area different to a low pressure area in terms of weather?

High pressure areas receive less rainfall as the sinking air prevents the formation of clouds. Low pressure areas have rising air that cools and forms clouds to they get more rainfall.


What are the atmospheric circulation cells called?

Hadley cell, ferrel cell and polar cells.


What four factors cause the climate to chmange over the past 400,000 years.

Orbital activity, solar output, volcanic activity and asteroids.


How do these four things affect the climate.

Volcanic eruptions and asteroids put large amounts of dust into the atmosphere. Orbital change means the earth is slightly closer to the sun over ling periods of time.


Give evidence that shows the earths climate was warmer/ cooler.

Analysing the gases trapped in layers of ice, the thickness of tree rings (thicker=warmer), historical evidence (drawings).


How have each of these increased the greenhouse effect: transport, industry, energy production, farming.

Farming: cows produce methane and trees are cleared for crops releasing CO2. Energy: power plants are using fossil fuels. Industry: production of cement produces a lot of CO2 and industrial waste which decays releasing methane. Transport: most transport run on fossil fuels. Car owner shop is increasing so more traffic.


Fact file for cyclones: pressure, rotation, direction, structure, location.

Pressure: water rising causes low pressure. Rotation: the earths rotation deflects the wind causing it to spin. Direction: they travel away from the equator where they slowly loose energy.


Where does the energy for the tropical cyclone come from?

Water rising and cooling and condensing realses a lot of latent heat energy.


USA hurricane Katrina . What was the response and preparation like. Compared to Myanmar

Sophisticated monitoring system gave an early warming to the USA where as Myanmar had a 48 hour warning from india.flood defences were put up in the us but failed, Myanmar had no defences so 140,000 people dies where as 1800 people died in the US.


What is the core, mantel and crust.

Core (iron and nickel) 4400 - 6000 degrees. Mantle(silicon) 1000-3700. Crust silicon based rock.


What is a hotspot volcano.

Volcanoes that have formed from s plume of magma rushing up and breaking the crust. It is in the middle of a tectonic plate.


What is the focus and epicentre?

The focus of the earthquake is the place where the earthquake starts. An epicentre is a deeper earthquake causing less damage.


What were the differences in effects pf the Japanese earthquake and Haiti earthquake.

Japan had building laws preventing dangerous buildings, an early warning system, people were more educated and prepared for the earthquake with an unexpected magnitude. a tsunami was caused and 230,000 people were made homeless.