Flashcards in Topic 1 - Condition of the Soviet Union before 1917 Deck (15)
Who was the autocratic Emperor of Russia in 1917?
What dynasty was he a member of?
Tsar Nicholas II
A member of the Romanov dynasty that had ruled Russia since 1613.
Tsar Nicholas II governed Russia since 1894.
How much of the worlds land surface did the Russian Empire occupy?
It was seen as a great power.
Due to the difficult climate and terrain where was most of the population concentrated?
European Russia, west of the Ural Mountains.
At the turn of the twentieth century, what was the population of Russia?
126 million people.
What shaped Russian society?
The dominance of the Orthodox Church and the peasantry, who made up 80% of the population.
It was not until 1906 that political parties were legally permitted. A number of parties were very prominent by 1917. What were some of these?
The Octoberists, the Kadets, the Social Revolutionaries (SRs), the Mensheviks and the Bolsheviks.
From 1906 to 1914, Russia's urban workers were increasingly unionised. Strikes occurred sporadically from 1906 to 1911 and increased significantly before WW1. How many strikes were there in 1912, 1913 and 1914?
1912 = 750,000
1913 = 887,000
1914 January to July = 1,450,000
What did the Tsar believe in?
Autocracy. He was highly resistant to reform.
Who was the Tsar assisted by?
The Cabinet, the Senate, and the State Council. However, these bodies were merely advisory and they had no power independent of the Tsar.
What did the October Manifesto create?
A national parliament, the Duma. However, its limited powers did not fulfill the demands of liberals as the elected lower house did not have ultimate law making power.
Who is Stolypin and what did he do?
Between 1906 and 1911, Pyotr Stolypin acted as the Tsar's head of government. Stolypin attempted to restore order through a policy of cautious reform and brutal repression.
What was the result of Stolypin's reforms and repression?
Between 1906 and 1911, Stolypin's courts found 37,620 people guilty of political crimes. Of these, 8,640 were sent to labour camps, while 1,858 were resettled to Russia's deserts or to the frozen wastes of Siberia. Russia's prison population rose from 98,000 in 1905 to over 250,000 by 1913.
What did Stolypin become associated with?
The brutal policies. The trains that carried people away to exile were known as 'Stolypin's wagons' and the noose nicknamed 'Stolypin's necktie'.
Who was Maksimilian Trusevich?
At the beginning of 1907, Maksimilian Trusevich (head of the Russian police) instituted a policy of surveillance and subversion. This policy was highly effective and official reports indicate that Trusevich and Stolypin were convinced that by 1908, they had won the battle against revolutionary parties.