Flashcards in Topic 7 - Economic and Social Developments Deck (32)
What was State Capitalism?
Lenin's policy of State Capitalism was a pragmatic response to the problems facing Russia in 1918. Lenin hoped that nationalisation would lead to greater efficiency as the Government could employ experts to run the economy. Control of the nationalised industries was then centralised.
What years was State Capitalism?
What years were War Communism?
What years were New Economic Policy?
What ran all nationalised industries?
The Supreme Soviet of the National Economy - Vesenkha.
What was Vesenkha?
What was it designed to do?
A group of economic experts. The Vesenkha was designed to:
- re-establish worker discipline by offering higher pay to productive workers.
- ensure factories were properly managed by placing them under the control of well-paid specialists.
- co-ordinate economic production to meet the needs of the new society.
Why was the establishment of War Communism important?
For the survival of the Bolshevik regime during the Civil war. The economy needed to meet the demands of the war effort.
What was the state of the economy by May 1918?
The country was in a state of economic collapse: food prices soared, industrial production shrank and the value of the rouble collapsed.
What was War Communism designed to ensure?
- high levels of industrial production of war goods.
- an efficient allocation of workers.
- food production to feed soldiers, workers and the civilian populations.
What was grain requisitioning during War Communism?
Cheka squads were authorised to seize grain and other forms of food from peasants without payment.
What was rationing during War Communism?
The Supply Commissariat rationed the seized foods from grain requisitioning. The largest rations went to workers and soldiers, while the smallest rations were given to members of the Bourgeoisie.
What was the abolition of money during War Communism?
In the short term, the government simply printed more money, which led to hyperinflation. Money became worthless, leading to workers being paid through their rations and many public services, such as tram services, were provided freely.
What was the abolition of trade during War Communism?
Private trade was made illegal.
What was complete nationalism during War Communism?
All businesses were taken over by the state.
What was conscription during War Communism?
Workers were assigned either to work in factories or fight in the army.
What did War Communism succeed in?
What did it lead to?
War Communism succeeded in keeping the Red Army supplied and allowing the Bolsheviks to win the Civil War. However, it led to economic collapse and political crisis.
What was the Red Terror?
The assassination attempt on Lenin on 30th August 1918 launched a ferocious campaign of violence. The repression that accompanied the spread of Bolshevik control over Russia by 1921 became known as the Red Terror. The Bolsheviks used the Cheka and the Red Army as the tools of terror.
How many deaths were there in the Red Terror?
Official records put the figure for deaths at the hands of the Cheka during this period as 13,000. But estimates put the real figure at 500,000.
How did the Civil War cause problems?
The conflict ruined the economy. Droughts in 1920 and 1921 made the situation worse, threatening famine.
What was the Tambov Revolt?
From Autumn 1920, peasants in Tambov, led by Aleksander Antonov, began a rebellion against Communist grain requisitioning and a Cheka brutality. By January 1921, Antonov had a force of 50,000 anti-Communist fighters. Antonov's revolt spread throughout the spring of 1921. By March 1921, there were peasant attacks on Government grain stores all along the Volga River.
Who led the Tambov Revolt?
What was the Kronstadt Rising?
Sailors at the Kronstadt naval base, horrified by the Communist suppression of Petrograd strikes, started a rebellion. The Kronstadt sailors demanded a series of reforms which would turn Russia into a soviet democracy. This demand was summed up in their slogan 'soviets without Communists.'
Why was the new economic policy needed?
The scale of the Tambov Revolt, which ended up being the largest peasant rebellion since the eighteenth century, concerned senior Communists. Equally, the Kronstadt Rising was a propaganda disaster as the Kronstadt sailors had been some of the most loyal supporters of the Communists since 1917. The political crisis even affected the Communist Party, with internal divisions emerging within it. A new direction was needed to ensure the government's survival.
What did the New Economic Policy create?
A mixed economy.
What did the NEP do?
- Farming was left to the free market. Peasants could buy, sell and produce freely. Grain requisitioning ended and was replaced by a tax in kind.
- Small factories and workshops were denationalised and allowed to trade freely. Many were returned to their former capitalist owners.
- Large factories and major industries remained nationalised.
- Money was reintroduced.
What impact did the NEP have agriculture?
Ending grain requisitioning was extremely popular among the peasants. Free trade also encouraged peasants to grow more food. Therefore, the famine ended and farming revived compared with 1921.
What happened to grain production from 1913 to 1924?
1913 = grain harvest 80.11 million tonnes.
1920 = grain harvest 46.1 million tonnes.
1921 = grain harvest 37.61 million tonnes.
1922 = grain harvest 50.3 million tonnes.
1923 = grain harvest 56.6 million tonnes.
1924 = grain harvest 51.4 million tonnes.
What impact did NEP have on the industry?
The NEP led to industrial growth. Lenin authorised a major electrification campaign which revived and industry that had effectively been destroyed by the Civil War. However, industrial recovery was extremely slow.
What happened to the economic growth under the NEP? (1913-1926)
1913 = industrial production 10,251 million roubles.
1920 = industrial production 1,410 million roubles.
1921 = industrial production 2,004 million roubles.
1922 = industrial production 2,619 million roubles.
1923 = industrial production 4,005 million roubles.
1924 = industrial production 4,660 million roubles.
1925 = industrial production 7,739 million roubles.
1926 = industrial production 11,083 million roubles.