Flashcards in Topic 8 - Foreign Relations and Attitudes of Foreign Powers Deck (20)
What is the Comintern?
The Comintern was established in March 1919 to promote world wide revolution. Lenin wanted it to create Communist parties abroad that would be loyal to Moscow and whose purpose was to overthrow foreign governments.
What caused the Russo-Polish War?
The Bolsheviks attempted to export the revolution and in 1920 the Red Army invaded Poland. The Bolsheviks expected the Polish working class to support the Red Army and revolt against the Polish government.
Why did the invasion in Poland fail?
The Poles resisted what they saw as traditional Russian expansionist aggression.
What happened as a result of the failure to invade Poland?
In light of the failure to export the revolution to Poland, as well as Hungary and Germany, Lenin questioned how realistic and imminent an international revolution was. Although the Comintern continued to work towards a world revolution, the Bolsheviks recognised the strength of capitalist nations.
When was the Treaty of Rapollo signed and who was the agreement with?
In 1922, the Soviet Union signed the agreement with Germany.
Why did Russia and Germany need the Treaty of Rapollo?
Germany had been isolated by the international community since the Treaty of Versailles. Similarly, there was great hostility towards Soviet Russia as Western nations feared the spread of communism and were angered by Lenin's actions in the First World War.
What were the main terms of the Treaty of Rapollo?
- Both nations promised to 'co-operate in a spirit of mutual goodwill in meeting the economic needs of both countries'.
- The re-establishment of diplomatic relations between Russia and Germany.
- Russia provided Germany's military training grounds and resources.
- Russia would be allowed special trading rights in Germany.
What did the Treaty of Rapollo develop into?
The Treaty of Rapollo developed into the Treaty of Berlin, which was signed in 1926 by Germany and Russia and contained a non-aggression pact between these nations.
When was the Anglo-Soviet Trade Agreement signed?
What was it?
The Soviet regime had enjoyed an improved relationship with Britain, and had even signed Anglo-Soviet Agreement in March 1921, which enabled greater trade between the two countries.
When was the Communist Party of Great Britain founded?
In 1920-21 with the support of the Comintern, and had sought to influence the British Labour Party.
When was the Zinoviev Letter released?
What was it?
On 25th October 1924, four days before the British general election, the Daily Mail published a letter allegedly written by Zinoviev, the then head of the Comintern. The headline read: 'Soviet Plot - Red Propaganda in Britain: Revolution Urged in Britain'. The letter urged the Communist Party of Great Britain to infiltrate the Labour Party in order to extend communism to Britain.
What view did the Zinoviev Letter reinforce?
The View that the British Labour Party was too closely linked to Soviet Russia. Zinoviev claimed the letter had been forged, but the Conservative Party was elected into Parliament in the general election. The new Conservative government was much more hostile to Soviet relations.
What was Lenin's rule by 1924?
Lenin died in January 1924. Despite having promised 'peace, land and bread', he had led Russia into a brutal civil war and his policies had created a famine. Soviet democracy had be usurped by the party. What is more, the NEP was unpopular within the Communist Party because it was a compromise with Capitalism. Nonetheless, Lenin had succeeded in his prime goal: the Communists had seized and retained power. Lenin hoped that, in the fullness of time, the party would lead Russia and the world to communism.
What were the reasons for foreign intervention in the Russian civil war?
- In 1918, the main motive was to keep Russia fighting in the First World War, to prevent or delay the mass transfer of German forces from the Eastern Front to the West.
- To protect the vast dumps of armaments and war materials that had been shipped to Russia by the Allies.
- To support Anti-Bolshevik forces.
- Divisions and muddled thinking within the Allied governments.
What was the problem for the Allied governments?
They had little accurate or up to date knowledge of what was happening. They were often out of touch with the speed of events.
What was the full name of the Comintern?
Third Communist International.
What did the Comintern do?
It was an international socialist organisation promoting Marxism and spreading 'proletarian revolution' from Russia to the world.
Where was the first congress of the Comintern held?
In Moscow in March 1919.
How many delegates were at the Comintern?
Where were they from?
More than 50 delegates. From all over Europe and also the United States, Australia and Japan.