Topic 1.1-The Structure and Functions of the Muscular Skeletal System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Topic 1.1-The Structure and Functions of the Muscular Skeletal System Deck (10)
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What's the main functions of the muscular-skeletal system?

What are the five functions of the skeletal system for sport?

What do tendons do?

What do ligaments do?

How many bones are their in the vertebral column (the spine)?

What's separating each vertebrae?

What are the five different sections of the vertebral column and how many bones are in each?

What happens to the last two sections of the vertebral column when someone reaches adulthood?

Movement, stability, posture, protection.

Protection of vital organs, muscle attachment, joints for movement, storing calcium and phosphorus, red and white blood cell and platelet production.

Tendons attach muscle to bone.

Ligaments attach bone to bone.

33 bones.

Invertebral discs.

Cervical: 7 bones
Thoracic: 12 bones
Lumbar: 5 bones
Sacrum: 5 bones
Coccyx (proper name coccygeal) 4 bones.

They become fused together (the sacrum and the coccygeal).


What's flexibility?

What's a joint?

What three things determine the range of movement?

What are the four types of joints?

Describe each type of joint?

The range of movement available at a joint.

A place where two or more bones meet.

Structure, ligaments and muscles.

Pivot, hinge, ball and socket, condyloid.

Hinge: only allows backwards and forwards motion (flexion and extension).

Ball and Socket: this is where the rounded head of a long bone (the ball) fits into a cup shaped socket. This joint has the greatest range of movement.

Condyloid: similar to ball and socket but he ball tests against the end of the bone (can be found at the wrist).

Pivot: allow bones to rotate. A bone shaped like a cylinder rotates inside another bone or ligament. There are only three in the body: at the wrist, elbow and neck.


What's flexion?

What's extension?

What's abduction?

What's adduction?

What's Dorsi flexion?

What's plantar flexion?

What's circumduction?

What's rotation?

Flexion is contracting a muscle.

Extension is extending the muscle.

Abduction is extending outwards away from the body.

Adduction is extending inwards (towards the body).

Dorsi flexion is extending up.

Plantar flexion is extending down.

Circumduction is moving in a circular or conical (cone like) shape.

Rotation is the movement around a single axis or pivot joint.


What do you find between each vertebrae?

What happens to the vertebral column when you bend?

Where are the only three pivot joints?

Describe the functions and characteristics of tendons and ligaments?

What are the three types of muscle?

What is the only muscle found in the human body that is classed as the last type of muscle just mentioned?

What are the three structures of muscles called?

What does a muscle do to a bone when it produces a movement in one direction?

What are some muscles arranged in?

What's the muscle the muscle in this pair called when it contracts and pulls?

A disc of cartilage.

There's a small amount of movement between each one.

Wrist, elbow and neck.

Tendons: Non elastic and join muscle to bone at a joint.
Ligaments: Elastic that also provide stability and join bone to bone at a joint.

Voluntary, involuntary and cardiac.

The heart.

Skeletal, smooth and cardiac.

It contracts and pulls.

Antagonistic pairs.

The agonist.


What's the other muscle in this pair called when it relaxes?

What do these two muscle pair allow?

What are antagonistic pairs?

What is voluntary muscle made up of?

What do each of these contain?

What are/do these tiny tissues do?

What are the two types of muscle twitch fibres?

What are the types of each of these?

What do athletes who do endurance activities generally have more of?

What do athletes who do more speed events/activities generally have more of?

The antagonist.

The joint to work.

Muscles that work together to create movement.

Bundles of individual fibres.

Many myofibrils.

Stands that can grab on to each other and pull to make muscles contract.

Fast and slow twitch fibres.

Slow (Type 1).
Fast (Type 2- Type IIa and Type IIx).

Slow twitch fibres.

Fast twitch fibres.


What do we have of both in our muscles?

What affects the amount of both?

Describe slow twitch fibres?

Describe fast twitch fibres?

What are muscle fibres make up?

Types of twitch fibres.

Our genes.

They are darker in colour due to them containing a lot of myoglobin and have a good oxygen supply. These muscles contract slowly, which allows them to work for a longer period under great stress. In these muscles, oxygen supply is needed to supply energy to working muscles and are used for aerobic respiration/work.

They are lighter in colour because they don't use oxygen to make energy. These muscles work more quickly, however tire more quickly and are used for anaerobic respiration/work.

Voluntary (skeletal) muscles which are divided into type I, type IIa and type IIx.


What/where are the three antagonistic pairs found in the body?

What are voluntary muscles made up of?

What does each one of these contain?

What do fibres contain many?

What are the two types of fibres?

What are the two types of fast twitch muscle fibres?

What are athletes better at if they have more fast or slow twitch fibres?

What is myoglobin?

1. In the elbow, the biceps (which flex the arm at the elbow) and the triceps (which extend the arm at the elbow).
2. The knee, the quadriceps (extends at the knee/helps flex the knee) and the hamstrings (flexes at the knee).
3. The ankle, the gastrocnemius (plantar flexion at the ankle) and the tibias anterior (dorsi flexion at the ankle)

Bundles of individual fibres.


Slow (Type 1)
Fast (Type 2)

Type IIa and IIx.

Endurance for more slow
Speed events for more fast.

A red pigment that transports oxygen to muscles.


What are fast twitch fibres used for?

What can slow twitch fibres do?

What type of muscle does muscle fibres make up?

Anaerobic work.

They can work for a longer period under great stress.



What are long bones?

What type of movement are long bones used for?

What are short bones?

What are the only two short bones in the body?

What three things are short bones roughly the same in?

What three activities are short bones usually associated with?

What are the two functions of flat bones?

What are irregular bones suited for and give an example?

What type of movements are short bones used for?

Long bones (eg in the arm) are strong and are used by muscles to assist movement

Used for larger gross movements (eg moving the leg at the hip)

Short bones support the weight of the body, they're weight bearing

The carpals in the wrist and the tarsals in the foot

Roughly same size in length, width and thickness

Weight bearing, shock absorption and spreading loads

Flat bones protect internal organs. Their broad surface also allows muscle attachment

Irregular bones (eg the vertebrae of the spine) are suited to protection and muscle attachment

Used for smaller fine movements.


What are the functions of the following flat bones:


Sternum and Ribs



Protects the brain

Protects the heart and lungs. The ribs also protect the kidneys

Protects the shoulder joint and has many muscles attached to it, helping arm and shoulder movement

Protects the reproductive organs and the bladder. it also has many muscles attached to it, helping leg movement.