Topic 11.1: Antibody Production and Vaccination Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Topic 11.1: Antibody Production and Vaccination Deck (11)
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1

Antigens

All organisms have unique molecules on the surface of cells
• Molecules that trigger immune responses are antigens

2

Antigens and Antibodies

Antigens act to trigger the production of specific antibodies

3

Antibodies aid in pathogen destruction by promoting (PANIC)

1) Phagocyte recruitment
2) Agglutination
3) Neutralization
4) Inflammation
5) Complement activation

4

Clonal Selection

Immune systems must be challenged with specific antigens to initiate an appropriate response (antibody production)
1) Macrophages present antigen fragments to TH cells
2) TH cells activate antigen-specific B cells (clonal selection)
3) The B cells divide and differentiate into plasma cells that produce large quantities of specific antibodies
4) A small proportion differentiate into B memory cells

5

Adaptive Immune System

The adaptive immune response includes the production of memory cells following an initial pathogenic infection

6

Immunological Memory

Memory cells persist for years, secreting antibodies
1) If re-infection with the same antigen occurs, memory
cells can respond faster and with much greater potency
2) As a result, disease symptoms do not develop (immunity)

7

Types of Immunity

1) Immunity can be active (able to produce own antibodies)
2) Immunity can be passive (acquires antibodies externally)

8

Active Immunity

1) Natural active immunity = normal response to infection
2) Artificial active immunity = immunity via vaccination

9

Passive Immunity

1) Natural passive immunity = via breastfeeding
2) Artificial passive immunity = monoclonal antibodies

10

Monoclonal Antibodies

Monoclonal antibodies are antibodies that have been derived from a single B cell clone (i.e. identical specific antibodies)
1) An animal (e.g. mouse) is injected with a pathogen to
stimulate production of specific plasma cells
2) The plasma cells are removed and fused with tumor cells capable of endless divisions
3) The hybridoma formed will mass-produce the antibody

11

Vaccination

1) Vaccines contain attenuated forms of a pathogen (cannot cause the disease, but can stimulate an immune response)
2) Vaccines induce active immunity by stimulating the presence of memory cells (confers long-term immunity)
3) When exposed to the actual pathogen, the memory cells will trigger a significantly faster and stronger immune response
• Periodic booster shots may still be required