Topic 11.1: Antibody Production and Vaccination Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Topic 11.1: Antibody Production and Vaccination Deck (11)
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All organisms have unique molecules on the surface of cells
• Molecules that trigger immune responses are antigens


Antigens and Antibodies

Antigens act to trigger the production of specific antibodies


Antibodies aid in pathogen destruction by promoting (PANIC)

1) Phagocyte recruitment
2) Agglutination
3) Neutralization
4) Inflammation
5) Complement activation


Clonal Selection

Immune systems must be challenged with specific antigens to initiate an appropriate response (antibody production)
1) Macrophages present antigen fragments to TH cells
2) TH cells activate antigen-specific B cells (clonal selection)
3) The B cells divide and differentiate into plasma cells that produce large quantities of specific antibodies
4) A small proportion differentiate into B memory cells


Adaptive Immune System

The adaptive immune response includes the production of memory cells following an initial pathogenic infection


Immunological Memory

Memory cells persist for years, secreting antibodies
1) If re-infection with the same antigen occurs, memory
cells can respond faster and with much greater potency
2) As a result, disease symptoms do not develop (immunity)


Types of Immunity

1) Immunity can be active (able to produce own antibodies)
2) Immunity can be passive (acquires antibodies externally)


Active Immunity

1) Natural active immunity = normal response to infection
2) Artificial active immunity = immunity via vaccination


Passive Immunity

1) Natural passive immunity = via breastfeeding
2) Artificial passive immunity = monoclonal antibodies


Monoclonal Antibodies

Monoclonal antibodies are antibodies that have been derived from a single B cell clone (i.e. identical specific antibodies)
1) An animal (e.g. mouse) is injected with a pathogen to
stimulate production of specific plasma cells
2) The plasma cells are removed and fused with tumor cells capable of endless divisions
3) The hybridoma formed will mass-produce the antibody



1) Vaccines contain attenuated forms of a pathogen (cannot cause the disease, but can stimulate an immune response)
2) Vaccines induce active immunity by stimulating the presence of memory cells (confers long-term immunity)
3) When exposed to the actual pathogen, the memory cells will trigger a significantly faster and stronger immune response
• Periodic booster shots may still be required