Topic 2.4: Proteins Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Topic 2.4: Proteins Deck (27)
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1

Monomer of a protein

Amino acids

2

Structure of amino acids

a) Amine (NH2)
b) Carboxyl (COOH)
c) Hygrogen atom
d) R group

3

Polypeptide

Long chains of amino acids

4

How are polypeptides formed and broken down?

a) Joined together by condensation reactions
b) Broken down by hydrolysis reactions

5

Peptide bond

Covalent bond between amino acids

6

Primary structure of proteins

a) Order and number of amino acid sequence
b) Formed by covalent peptide bonds

7

Secondary structure of proteins

a) Folding into repeat patterns
b) By hydrogen bonds between amine and carboxyl groups.

8

Common secondary structures of proteins

a) Alpha-helix
b) Beta-pleated sheets

9

Tertiary structure of proteins

a) Overall 3D arrangement of a polypeptide
b) Determined by interactions between variable side chains.

10

Quaternary structure of proteins

Association of multiple polypeptides and prosthetic groups

11

Example of a protein with quaternary structure

Hemoglobin
a) Two alpha-helix
b) Two beta.pleated sheets
c) Haeme groups

12

Denaturation

Structural change in a protein that results in the loss of its biological properties.

13

Denaturation factors

a) Temperature
b) pH

14

Denaturation due to temperature

a) Hydrogen bonds are disrupted at high temperatures.
b) Protein unfolds and loses its capacity to function.

15

Denaturation due to pH

a) Changing the pH will disrupt ionic bonds, alter protein solubility, and overall shape
b) Optimal protein

16

How is a gene sequence converted into a polypeptide sequence?

a) Transcription (mRNA)
b) Translation (polypeptide)

17

Types of protein tertiary structure

a) Globular
b) Fibrous

18

Comparing globular and fibrous proteins (SPADES)

a) Long, narrow | Round spherical
b) Structural | Functional
c) Repetitive | Irregular
d) Less sensitive | More sensitive
e) Collagen | Enzyme
f) Insoluble | Soluble

19

Proteome

Totality of proteins expressed within an organism

20

Proteome is ... than genome

Greater

21

Function of proteins
(SHITS ME)

a) Structure (Collagen)
b) Hormones (Insulin)
c) Immunity (Antibodies)
d) Transport (Haemoglobin)
e) Sensation (Rhodopsin)
f) Movement (Actin)
g) Enzymatic (Rubisco)

22

Rubisco

Catalyzes the reaction that fixes CO2 from the atmosphere

23

Insulin

Signals many cells to absorb glucose and reduce its concentration of the blood

24

Immunoglobulins

Binds to an antigen and acts as a marker to phagocytes

25

Rhodopsin

Absorbs light and sends a nerve impulse to the brain

26

Collagen

Gives strength to tendons, skin, and blood vessel walls

27

Spider silk

Stronger than silk used to make spider webs