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Flashcards in Topic 2 Deck (39)
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1

Anaphase

Stage of mitosis when separated chromosomes move away from each other

2

Asexual reproduction

Producing organisms from one parent only.
Genetically identical to the parent

3

Cancer cell

Cell that divides uncontrollably

4

Cell cycle

Sequence of growth and division in cells
(Mitosis & interphase)

5

Cytokinesis

When the cytoplasm of the cell is separated and the cell membrane is pinched to divide the cell into 2 daughter cells

6

Daughter Cell

New cells produced by cell division

7

DNA replication

Copying of DNA in a cell

8

Interphase

Stage when cell prepared itself to divide, DNA replication takes place.
Makes more sub-cellular structures

9

Metaphase

Stage of mitosis when chromosomes line up in middle of cell

10

Mitosis

Process of cells dividing into 2 identical daughter cells, genetically identical also to the parent

11

Prophase

Stage of mitosis when the nucleus begins to break down and spindle fibres appear

12

Spindle fibre

Filament formed during mitosis to help separate chromosomes

13

Telophase

Chromosomes arrive at opposite ends of cell and nucleus membrane forms

14

Percentile

A 1/100 division of a group

15

Differentiate

To change into different types, e.g., meristem cells differentiate to become xylem cells or root hair cells

16

Elongation

When something gets longer

17

Meristem

A small area of undifferentiated cells in a plant

18

Root hair cell

Cell found on surface of plant roots that has a large surface area to absorb water

19

Xylem cell

Cells that join with other xylem cells to form long, thick walled vessels after they die.

Carry water and dissolved mineral salts through the plant

20

Adult stem cell

Stem cell found in specialised tissue that can produce more of the specialised cells in that tissue for growth and repair

21

Rejection

When the immune system attacks and kills cells and tissue

22

Axon

Long extension of a neurone that carries an impulse away from dendron or dendrite towards other neurones

23

Axon terminal

Small ‘button’ at end of branches that leave an axon

24

CNS

Central Nervous System

Brain and spinal cord

25

Dendrite

A fine extension from a neurone which carries impulses

26

Dendron

Large, long extension of a sensory neurone that carries impulses from dendrite to axon

27

Myelin sheath

Fatty covering around axons of neurones.
Speeds up transmissions of impulses
Helps to insulate

28

Neurone

Cell that transmits electrical impulses
Nerve cell

29

Neurotransmission

Passing impulses
(Neurone to neurone)

30

Receptor cell

Cell that receives a stimulus and coverts it into an impulse to be sent to the brain - spinal cord