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Flashcards in Topic 3 Deck (37)
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1

Chromosome

In nuclei of cells
Contains long DNA molecule packed with proteins

2

Daughter cell

Cell produced by other cell that has divided

3

Diploid

Cell w 2 sets of chromosomes

4

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic Acid
Polymer made of glucose and phosphate joined to bases

5

Gene

Section of the long DNA strand in a chromosome
Contains instructions for proteins

6

Genome

All of the DNA in an organism

7

Meiosis

Cell division in one parent cell to produce 4 haploid daughter cells

8

Mitosis

Cell division to form two diploid daughter cells

9

Polymer

Molecule made up of a chain of repeating similar sub units (monomers)

10

Adenine

Base
Paired with thymine

11

Base

Four substances that help make up DNA
A & T
C & G

12

Complementary base pairs

Pairs of bases that fit into each other

13

Cytosine

Base
Paired with guanine

14

Double Helix

Two helixes joined together - shape of DNA

15

Guanine

Base
Paired with cytosine

16

Hydrogen bond

Weak force of attraction caused by differences in electrical charges in different parts of different molecules

17

Thymine

Base
Paired with adenine

18

Allele

Different versions of a gene
E.g. eye colour

19

Dominant

Alleles that will always affect the phenotype

20

Genetic diagram

Shows how alleles of two parents may form different combinations

21

Genetic variation

Differences in organisms passed on from parents

22

Genotype

Alleles for certain characteristics found in an organism.

23

Heterozygous

When alleles are different
(Dominant / recessive)

24

Homozygous

When alleles are the same
(Dominant / recessive)

25

Monohybrid inheritance

Study of how alleles or just one gene are passed from parent to offspring

26

Phenotype

Characteristics that a certain set of alleles produce

27

Recessive

Only affects phenotype if the other allele is also recessive

28

Family pedigree chart

Chart showing phenotypes and sexes of several generations of a family

29

Punnet Square

Diagram used to predict characteristics in offspring of two organisms using combinations fo alleles

30

Sex Chromosomes

Males = one X and one Y

Females = two X and one Y