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Flashcards in Topic 4 Deck (33)
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1

Ardi

Ardipithecus ramidus

4.4 million years ago

2

Binomial System

System of naming organisms using Latin names

3

Evolution

A change in characteristics of a population or species over a long period of time

4

Lucy

Australopithecus afarensis

5

Species

A group of organisms that can reproduce with each other to produce offspring

6

Ancestor

Organism from which more recent organisms are descended

7

Competition

Competition between organisms, e.g. for food

8

Genetic variation

Differences in organisms caused by differences in genes passed to offspring from parents

9

Natural Selection

Process when certain organisms are more likely to survive and reproduce than other members of the same species, due to genetic variation

10

Resistant

Unaffected or less affected by something

11

Classification

Sorting into groups

12

Domain

Three main groups
Archaea
Eukarya
Bacteria

13

Genus

Group of similar organisms
First name in Latin name of organisms

14

Kingdom

Five main kingdoms
Plants
Animals
Fungi
Protists
Prokaryotes

15

Species

Group of organisms that can reproduce to produce offspring

16

Artificial Selection

When people choose organisms with specific characteristics and use those for breeding

17

Breed

Group of animals of same species that have characteristics that make them different to other members of the species
E.g. dogs - Westie breed to Jack Russel Breed

18

Genetic Engineering

Altering genome of an organism, often adding genes of another species

19

GMO

Genetically Modified Organism
Organisms produced using genetic engineering

20

Selective breeding

When humans choose an organism that has certain characteristics and then breed them, making the characteristic more obvious each time

21

Variety

Group of plants of same species with different characteristics that makes it distinctive.

22

Yield

Amount of useful product

23

Allele

Different versions of a gene

24

Base

Adenine
Thymine
Guanine
Cytosine

Make up DNA

25

Diabetes

Disease where the body can not control blood-glucose concentration or insulin

26

Insulin

Hormone that decreases blood-glucose concentration.
Used to treat type 1 diabetes

27

Ligase

An enzyme that joins 2 DNA molecules together

28

Plasmid

Small loop of DNA found in cytoplasm of bacteria

29

Recombinant DNA

DNA made by joining 2 sections together with ligase

30

Restriction enzyme

An enzyme that cuts DNA molecules into pieces