Topic 2.1 - 2.4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Topic 2.1 - 2.4 Deck (77):
1

Mnemonic to remember Reactivity Series of Metals?

Please Send Little Charlie's Monkeys and Zebras In Tall Lead Cages Securely Guarded

2

How do Potassium and Sodium react when cut and left in air?

Shiny surface quickly tarnishes

3

How does Potassium react when heated in air?

Burn with lilac flame

4

How does Sodium react when heated in air?

Burns with bright yellow flame

5

How do Ca, Mg, Al and Zn react when left in air?

React slowly forming layer of oxide

6

How does Calcium react when heated in air?

Burns with brick red flame

7

How does Magnesium react when heated in air?

Burns with bright white light, leaving white ash

8

How does Aluminium powder react when heated in air?

Burns with white sparks leaving white solid

9

How does Zinc react when heated in air?

Burns leaving yellow solid, which changes to white when cooled

10

How do Iron and Copper react when left in air?

Forms oxide layer, easily rubbed off

11

How does Iron wool react when heated in air?

Burn with yellow/orange sparks forming black solid

12

How does Copper react when heated in air?

Quickly forms black oxide layer

13

Give 4 observations of Potassium reacting with water?

Floats
Fizzes across surface
Lilac flame
Bubbles of gas

14

Give 4 observations of Sodium reacting with water?

Floats
Fizzes across surface
Rolls in to ball
Heat released

15

Give 3 observations of Calcium reacting with water?

Sinks initially
Bubbles of gas
Heat released

16

Give observation of Magnesium reacting with water?

Some bubbles of gas released

17

Will Aluminium, Zinc, Iron and Copper react with water?

No

18

If Universal indicator was used, what would the colour change be after the reactions of Potassium and Sodium in water?

Green to Blue

19

How do we know that the gas produced from reactions of Calcium and Magnesium with water is Hydrogen?

When gas is collected, it burns with a squeaky pop

20

Word Equation for reaction of Metal and Water?

Metal + Water ---> Metal Hydroxide + Hydrogen

21

Magnesium reaction with steam?

Produces bright white light and forms white solid

22

Reaction of Aluminium powder and steam?

Forms white powder

23

Reaction of Zinc with Steam?

Glows, producing yellow powder which becomes white when left to cool

24

Reaction of Red hot Iron and steam?

Forms black solid

25

What is a Displacement Reaction?

This is a reaction where a more reactive metal displaces a less reactive element from its compound

26

Give 2 tests for presence of water?

- Placing Anhydrous Copper Sulphate, if colour changes from white to blue, water is present
- Placing Anhydrous Cobalt Chloride, if colour changes from blue to pink, water is present

27

How to test for pure water?

Check if freezing point is exactly 0°C or if boiling point is exactly 100°C

28

Definition of Hardwater?

Water that doesn't easily lather with soap

29

Name 2 ions that cause water to be hard?

Calcium ions
Magnesium ions

30

Why does Hard water not lather easily with soap?

Calcium ions react with Stearate ions in soap to form scum

31

Chemical name of Scum?

Calcium Stearate

32

What ion in hard water helps form strong teeth and bones?

Calcium ions

33

Give 2 terms that describe hardness of hard water?

Permanent
Temporary

34

What 2 salts causes Hardwater to be Temporary?

Calcium HydrogenCarbonate
Magnesium HydrogenCarbonate

35

Give 3 features of Hard Water areas?

Pot holes
Caverns
Stalagmites and Stalactites

36

Definition of Temporary Hardwater?

Water that when boiled, Calcium HydrogenCarbonate decomposes and insoluble Calcium Carbonate is formed

37

What is Calcium Carbonate?

Like scale

38

Give word equation of formation of scum?

Sodium Stearate + Hardwater ---> Calcium Stearate + Sodium

39

Give word equation of temporary Hardwater being heated?

Calcium HydrogenCarbonate ---> Carbon Dioxide + Water + Calcium Carbonate

40

Why does boiling temporary hard water cause it to become soft?

Boiling the water causes precipitation of Calcium/Magnesium Carbonate. This removes calcium and magnesium ions, removing the hardness

41

Definition of Permanent Hardwater?

Water that contains Calcium and Magnesium salts that cannot be broken down by boiling

42

Give 2 ways in which Permanent Hardwater can become soft?

- Adding Washing Soda
- Ion Exchange Columns

43

Why does adding washing soda to Hardwater cause it to become soft?

Washing soda is Sodium Carbonate. Calcium and Magnesium ions react with Sodium Carbonate and form insoluble Calcium/Magnesium Carbonate, removing the hardness

44

Why do Ion Exchange columns make Hardwater soft?

Ion exchange column contains resin with sodium ions. Calcium and Magnesium ions exchange with Sodium as water flows through column. Calcium and Magnesium ions are thus removed, removing the hardness

45

Give 4 advantages of Hardwater?

Tastes better
Provides calcium ions for strong bones and teeth
Better for tanning leather
Better for brewing beer

46

Give 3 disadvantages of Hardwater?

Limescale
Produces scum which wastes soap
Special dishwasher salt needed so as to soften water, extra cost

47

Give 2 examples of Dessicants?

Silica Gel
Calcium Chloride

48

Define Dessicant?

A substance which absorbs moisture

49

Define Deliquescent?

A substance that absorbs so much moisture in the air that it dissolves, forming a solution

50

Give 3 advantages of Flouridation?

Prevents tooth decay
Protects enamel
Lowers cavities in teeth

51

Give 2 disadvantages of Flouridation?

Flourosis
Ethical issues, seen as mass medication

52

What is Flouridation?

When flouride ions are added to the water supply

53

Give 4 signs that indicate a chemical reaction taking place?

Colour change
Precipitate
Gas
Temperature change

54

Give 3 exothermic reactions?

Combustion
Neutralisation
Displacement

55

Give 3 endothermic reactions?

Thermal Decomposition
Cracking
Photosynthesis

56

Define Thermal Decomposition?

The breaking down of a compound using Heat

57

Give 2 uses of limestone?

Blast furnace
Neutralising acidic soil

58

Give 2 uses of Calcium Oxide?

- Mixing with water to produce limewater
- Making plaster

59

3 advantages of Limestone quarrying?

Provide jobs
Raw material for use in blast furnace or soil neutralisation
Boosts the economy

60

Give 3 disadvantages of Limestone quarrying?

Eye sore
Ruins animal habitats
Noise and dust pollution

61

Give 3 consequences in Global Warming?

Flooding
Drought
Destruction of habitat

62

Who devised the Continental Drift Theory?

Alfred Wegner

63

What is Continental Drift?

The idea that the continents were once 1 large landmass, but they drifted apart

64

What is the current theory on plate tectonics?

Continents move due to conventional currents in the mantle

65

What causes an Earthquake?

When 2 tectonic plates slide past each other, or 1 slides under another, the plates may bend. As a result forces can be suddenly released which causes to ground to shake violently

66

What causes a Volcano?

When plates move apart, the earths crust is stretched, and may even crack. Molten magma can thus escape and a volcano is formed

67

What is the chemical name of Rust?

Hydrated Iron(III) Oxide

68

Define Galvanising?

A process that bonds a layer of reactive metal over the surface of a less reactive metal

69

Define Reducing Agent?

A substance that reduces an oxidised compound

70

Define Oxidising Agent?

A substance which oxidises a reduced compound

71

Give 3 examples of Oxidation and Reduction in Industry?

- Extraction of iron from blast furnace
- Extraction of aluminium by electrolysis
- Production of ammonia in the Haber Process

72

Define Rate of Reaction?

A measure of how fast or slow a reaction is

73

2 ways to measure Rate of Reaction?

- Measure how quickly the products form in a given time
- Meausre how quickly reactants are used up in a given time

74

Time is Inversely Proportional to Rate. True or false?

True

75

What 4 factors affect rate of reaction?

Surface area
Concentration
Temperature
Catalysts

76

What is Collision Theory?

For a reaction to take place, reacting particles must collide with sufficient Activation Energy

77

What is Activation Energy?

The minimum energy required for a reaction to take place between reacting particles