Topic 10 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Topic 10 Deck (16):

How do fertilisers and detergents pollute our water? What is this type of pollution called?

They contain phosphates and nitrates, which can cause algae blooms, which prevent light reaching underwater plants, so photosynthesis decreases. Plants continue to respire, so oxygen levels decrease. This is called Eutrophication


How does thermal pollution pollute our water?

Water that was used as a coolant in industry is disposed of in lakes and waterways, so the temperature of the water increases. This causes gases like oxygen to be less soluble, so oxygen levels decrease


How do pesticides pollute our water?

They are designed to kill pests, and can often be poisonous to humans. They can wash in to our waterways due to rain or flooding


Define solvent?

The substance that does the dissolving of the solute


Define solute?

The substance that dissolves in the solvent


Define solution?

A substance that is a mixture of a solute and a solvent


Define saturated solution?

A solution which cannot dissolve anymore solute


Define anhydrous?

A substance that does not contain any water


Define hydrated?

A substance that does contain water


As temperature increases, how is the solubility of solids affected?

Solubility of solids increases


As temperature increases, how is the solubility of gases affected?

Solubility of gases decreases


Define solubility?

Solubility is a measure of how much solute dissolves in 100g of solvent at a certain temperature


How to calculate solubility?

Mass of solute
---------------- X 100
Mass of solvent


Describe an experiment to determine the solubility of a solid? (8 steps)

- Add 10cm3 of water to test tube
- Add solid to test tube and stir until excess is present at room temperature
- Decant the saturated solution in to a weighed evaporating basin
- Weigh basin and solution
- Evaporate until it just starts to spit
- Complete drying over water bath. Heat until constant mass
- Calculate mass of solute and solvent
- Calculate solubility


Describe an experiment to test relationship between temperature and solid? (Constructing a solubility curve) (8 steps)

- Weigh 4g of solute and place in boiling tube
- Place 10cm3 of water in boiling tube
- Set boiling tube in clamp and retort stand, place thermometer and stirrer in boiling tube
- Heat in water bath until solute has dissolved
- Remove from water bath, allow to cool and then record temperature at which crystals first appear
- Add 2.5cm3 of water to boiling tube
- Repeat steps 5-8 until tube holds 20cm3 of water
- Using results construct a solubility curve


Give 4 pollutants of our water supplies?

Thermal Pollution