Topic 1-6 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Topic 1-6 Deck (51):
0

What is Ionic Bonding?

Bonding between a metal and a non-metal

1

Why do the ions attract each other to form an ionic lattice?

They have opposite charges, and opposite charges attract

2

What is covalent bonding?

Bonding between 2 non- metals

3

What does the term 'diatomic' mean?

When two atoms of the same element have covalently bonded

4

What is metallic bonding?

The attraction between delocalised electrons and positive ions in metal

5

Why do the electrons delocalise in metal?

The atoms are so tightly packed together that the elements in the outer shells get separated from their atoms

6

Why does metal carry current?

Due to metallic bonding, delocalised electrons can move freely and carry current

7

Is crystalline a property of Giant Ionic Lattices?

Yes

8

Do Giant Ionic Lattices have low melting and boiling points?

No

9

Giant Ionic Lattices conduct electricity when solid. True or False?

False. They conduct when liquid and molten, as the ions are able to move freely and carry current

10

Giant Ionic Lattices are soluble in water. True or False?

True

11

Do Covalent Molecular structures have low boiling and melting points?

Yes

12

Covalent Molecular Structures are able to conduct electricity. True or False?

False

13

Are Covalent Molecular structures soluble in water?

No

14

What is an Allotrope?

A different form of an element, in the same physical state.

15

Why do Diamond and Graphite have high melting and boiling points?

They both have so many strong covalent bonds

16

Why does Graphite conduct electricity?

Delocalised electrons between the layers are able to move freely and carry current

17

Why is graphite a slippery soft solid?

The weak Van Der Waal bonds between the layers, allow them to slide over each other

18

Can Metallic Structures conduct electricity?

Yes

19

Why are Metallic Structures malleable and ductile?

The delocalised electrons move between the positive ions when force is applied, keeping them together, whilst being stretched and bent

20

What is valency?

The number of electrons an atom will have to gain or lose in order to gain a full outer shell

21

How to work out formula of a compound?

Swap and drop the valencies of both products. ie.
Na O
1 2
2 1
Na2O

22

What were Newland's Octaves?

Every 8th element has some similarity. This pattern was called Newland's Octaves

23

What way did Newland's arrange his periodic table?

Atomic Mass

24

Mendeleev did the same as Newland's in arranging the periodic table in atomic mass, but what did he do different?

He left gaps for undiscovered elements

25

Did Mendeleevs periodic table manage to separate metals and non - metals?

Yes

26

How is our modern day periodic table different to Mendeleev's?

- no gaps
- noble gases have been discovered
- arranged in atomic NUMBER
- actinides and lanthanides

27

What are the trends of Group 1 and 2?

Elements get more reactive, bigger, denser, softer and lower melting and boiling points

28

Metal + Water

Metal Hydroxide + Hydrogen

29

Metal + Oxygen

Metal Oxide

30

Metal + Acid

Salt + Hydrogen

31

Metal + Halogen

Metal Halide

32

Why do elements get more reactive as you move further down Groups 1 + 2?

It gets easier to remove the outer shell electrons

33

How many covalent bonds does diamond have?

4 bonds

34

How many covalent bonds does Graphite have?

3 bonds

35

Cations are...?

Positive ions, atoms that lost electrons

36

Anions are...?

Negative ions, atoms that have gained electrons

37

Why do atoms gradually decrease in size across periods?

The more protons, the stronger the larger force upon the shells, pulling the, closer together

38

Observations of potassium in water?

- floats on surface
- fizzes
- disappears and stops fizzing
- purple lilac flame

39

Trends of group 7?

- bigger atoms
- less reactive
- less soluble
- increasing melting and boiling points

40

2 uses of aluminium?

- overhead electrical wiring
- alloys for aircraft

41

2 uses of copper?

- electrical wiring
- plumbing

42

2 uses of iron?

- bridges
- structures

43

2 uses of magnesium?

- flares
- high strength alloys for aircraft

44

Formula of Hydrochloric Acid?

HCl

45

Formula of Nitric Acid?

HNO3

46

Formula of Sulphuric Acid?

H2SO4

47

What was JJ Thomsons Plum Pudding Model?

Negative electrons embedded in positive sphere

48

What did Chadwick discover?

The neutron

49

What is an alloy?

A mixture of two elements, one of which is a metal

50

What is a covalent bond?

A shared pair of electrons