Flashcards in Topic 1-6 Deck (51):
What is Ionic Bonding?
Bonding between a metal and a non-metal
Why do the ions attract each other to form an ionic lattice?
They have opposite charges, and opposite charges attract
What is covalent bonding?
Bonding between 2 non- metals
What does the term 'diatomic' mean?
When two atoms of the same element have covalently bonded
What is metallic bonding?
The attraction between delocalised electrons and positive ions in metal
Why do the electrons delocalise in metal?
The atoms are so tightly packed together that the elements in the outer shells get separated from their atoms
Why does metal carry current?
Due to metallic bonding, delocalised electrons can move freely and carry current
Is crystalline a property of Giant Ionic Lattices?
Do Giant Ionic Lattices have low melting and boiling points?
Giant Ionic Lattices conduct electricity when solid. True or False?
False. They conduct when liquid and molten, as the ions are able to move freely and carry current
Giant Ionic Lattices are soluble in water. True or False?
Do Covalent Molecular structures have low boiling and melting points?
Covalent Molecular Structures are able to conduct electricity. True or False?
Are Covalent Molecular structures soluble in water?
What is an Allotrope?
A different form of an element, in the same physical state.
Why do Diamond and Graphite have high melting and boiling points?
They both have so many strong covalent bonds
Why does Graphite conduct electricity?
Delocalised electrons between the layers are able to move freely and carry current
Why is graphite a slippery soft solid?
The weak Van Der Waal bonds between the layers, allow them to slide over each other
Can Metallic Structures conduct electricity?
Why are Metallic Structures malleable and ductile?
The delocalised electrons move between the positive ions when force is applied, keeping them together, whilst being stretched and bent
What is valency?
The number of electrons an atom will have to gain or lose in order to gain a full outer shell
How to work out formula of a compound?
Swap and drop the valencies of both products. ie.
What were Newland's Octaves?
Every 8th element has some similarity. This pattern was called Newland's Octaves
What way did Newland's arrange his periodic table?
Mendeleev did the same as Newland's in arranging the periodic table in atomic mass, but what did he do different?
He left gaps for undiscovered elements
Did Mendeleevs periodic table manage to separate metals and non - metals?
How is our modern day periodic table different to Mendeleev's?
- no gaps
- noble gases have been discovered
- arranged in atomic NUMBER
- actinides and lanthanides
What are the trends of Group 1 and 2?
Elements get more reactive, bigger, denser, softer and lower melting and boiling points
Metal + Water
Metal Hydroxide + Hydrogen
Metal + Oxygen
Metal + Acid
Salt + Hydrogen
Metal + Halogen
Why do elements get more reactive as you move further down Groups 1 + 2?
It gets easier to remove the outer shell electrons
How many covalent bonds does diamond have?
How many covalent bonds does Graphite have?
Positive ions, atoms that lost electrons
Negative ions, atoms that have gained electrons
Why do atoms gradually decrease in size across periods?
The more protons, the stronger the larger force upon the shells, pulling the, closer together
Observations of potassium in water?
- floats on surface
- disappears and stops fizzing
- purple lilac flame
Trends of group 7?
- bigger atoms
- less reactive
- less soluble
- increasing melting and boiling points
2 uses of aluminium?
- overhead electrical wiring
- alloys for aircraft
2 uses of copper?
- electrical wiring
2 uses of iron?
2 uses of magnesium?
- high strength alloys for aircraft
Formula of Hydrochloric Acid?
Formula of Nitric Acid?
Formula of Sulphuric Acid?
What was JJ Thomsons Plum Pudding Model?
Negative electrons embedded in positive sphere
What did Chadwick discover?
What is an alloy?
A mixture of two elements, one of which is a metal