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Flashcards in Topic 5 Deck (15):

Give an example of a communicable disease.

Any from: Cholera, Tubercolosis, Malaria, Ebola, Chalara ash dieback


Give an example of a non-communicable disease.

Cardiovascular disease, cancer, heart disease


What are the steps in the Lytic pathway?

1) The virus attaches to a host cell and injects its genetic material into the cell. 2)The virus uses proteins and enzymes to replicate its genetic material. 3) The viral components assemble. 4) The host cell splits open, releasing the new viruses, which infect more cells.


Lysogenic pathway?

1) the injected genetic material is incorporated into the genome of the host cell. 2) it gets replicated along t=with the host dna every time the host divides, but THE VIRUS IS DORMANT. 3)Eventually a trigger causes the virus to undergo the lytic pathway/.


What is the purpose of a waxy cuticle in a plant?

To stop pathogens from entering or to stop pests from damaging leaves and stems.


2 physical plant defences?

Waxy cuticles, cell wall


A physical human barrier against disease?

Skin, hair, mucus


Chemical barriers against disease in humans

Hydrochloride acid, lysozyme (tears)


How do antibodies work, and where do they come from?

They are produced by B lymphocytes, and they bind to the invading pathogen so that it can be found and destroyed by white blood cells.


What are monoclonal antibodies?

Identical antibodies that are produced from clones of a single B lymphocyte.


What is a hybridoma, and what is its function?

A fusion of a B lymphocyte and a tumour cell, used in order to clone and create lots of monoclonal antibodies.


How can monoclonal antibodies be used to detect cancer?

They are labelled with a radioactive element, are sent into the patient’s body, and when they come into contact with cancer, they bind to its tumour markers. A picture is taken using a radioactive camera.


Explain how a double blind antibiotic test would be carried out.

You would give patients either the real drug or a false one to allow for the placebo effect.


What is the difference between antibiotics and antiseptic?

Antibiotics = inside the body. Antiseptics = outside.


What happens in cardiovascular disease?

Due to high, cholesterol, fatty deposits build up in arteries, causing restricted blood flow.