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Flashcards in Topic 6 Deck (62):
1

Which gender tends to die more of cancer

More men ( men:1 in 2 and women: 1 in 3)

2

Top 3 estimated new cancer cases (men vs. women)

Men: prostate, lung, colorectal
Women: breast, lung, colorectal

3

Top 3 estimated cancer deaths (men vs women)

Men: lung, prostate, colorectal
Women: lung, breast, colorectal

4

Overall the incidence of cancer and death rates from cancer have been

Declining in the 1990s

5

Due to an expanding and aging population, the total number of cancer deaths is

Increasing

6

5 year survival rates for all cancers is

Increasing but depends on the type

7

Cancers with high 5 year survival rates (4)

Prostate
Breast
Melanoma
Testis

8

Cancers with intermediate 5 year survival rates (4)

Colon
Uterine
Ovarian
Leukemia

9

Cancers with low 5 year survival rates (5)

Lung 16%
Esophageal 19%
Liver 14%
Pancreatic (worst one: 6% and die within 6-9 months of diagnosis)
Brain 36%

10

Cancer is most likely due to what 5 factors

Free radical damage as we age

Immune system surveillance declines as we age

Total exposure to carcinogens is cumulative as we age

Net effect of all these contribute to genome damage

Also changes in body hormones as we age

11

What percent of all cancers are thought to be linked to environmental factors

80%: through exposure to radiation, chemicals, viruses, lack of exercise, poor nutrition and eating habits

12

What percentage of cancers are thought to be due to genetic factors

15%

13

What percentage of cancers are of indeterminate cause

5%

14

Test for breast cancer

Mammogram (40-54 annual screening takes place)

15

Test for cervical cancer

Pap smear or HPV DNA test (both done every 5 years, or pap alone done every 3 years)

16

Test for colorectal cancer (start at age 50 and done every 5-10 years)

Colonoscopy (#1)
Guaiac-based fecal occult test
Stool DNA test
Flexible sigmoidoscopy
Double contrast barium enema
CT colonography

17

Test for lung cancer

Low-dose helical CT (LDCT): ages 50-74 in good health with 30+ pack year history

18

Test for prostate cancer (ages 50+)

Prostate-specific antigen test (PSA)

19

Cancer is thought to be started by what two processes?

Initiation
Promotion

20

an event that cause some alteration of genomes by carcinogen such as chemicals, tobacco radiation, virus, sunlight is considered what

Initiation

21

Stimulation of the division of a faulty cell by substances in the environment or drugs such as sex hormone drugs taken

Promotion

22

Proper regulation of what event is the major difference between normal and cancer cells

Cell cycle

23

Two main phases of the cell cycle

Interphase and M phase (usually mitosis)

24

Three phases of interphase

G1
S
G2

25

Cellular contents excluding the chromosomes are duplicated; what most cells do when they’re hanging out; protein synthesis for DNA replication, growth and development

G1 phase

26

DNA replication; each of the 46 chromosomes are duplicated by the cell; synthetic phase where you copy the chromosome (replicate genome)

S phase

27

The cell double checks the duplicated chromosomes for error, making any needed repairs; protein synthesis for cell division (spindle fibers/ some poles); altering ploidy (liver cells)

G2 phase

28

Division phase of the cell cycle (is usually): now have 2 cells each with 46 chromosomes or 23 pairs

Mitosis

29

The ending of mitosis where two daughter cells are produced

Cytokinesis

30

Cells that are no longer dividing; they are as old as you are; examples include nerve and muscle cells; cell cycle arrest

G0: cell cycle arrest

Ex/ lipofucsin

31

Parts of the cell cycle

G1
S
G2
M (mistosis)
Cytokinesis (end of mitosis)

32

These enzymes stimulate and regulate the cell cycle

Cyclins

33

What virus is linked to cervical cancer

HPV

34

An important regulator of the cell cycle and cancer

P53: p stands for protein, 53 kilodaltons

35

Wild type halts cell division, arrests cells in G1 (limits cyclin production); mutant forms (damaged or deleted) cause abnormal cell division

P53

36

What percentage of cancers involve mutation of what gene

50% of all cancers involve mutation of p53 gene

37

Found in highly metastatic cancers including colon, lung, skin, cervix, bladder, breast

Mutant p53 gene

38

Mutant p53 gene can also trigger what

Apoptosis (programmed cell death)

39

What are found to alter p53?

Some carcinogens

40

Elephants have how many copies of the p53 and lif6 gene

Multiple copies

41

LIF6 gene is

Leukemia inhibitory factor

42

Usually stop growing and are often encapsulated

Benign tumors

43

Examples of benign tumors

Miles, lipomas

44

A cancerous tumor, continues to grow and invades adjacent tissues

Malignant tumors

45

The migration of cancer cells from primary tumor site to secondary sites in body

Metastasis

46

What do cancer cells usually use to migrate

Blood vessels
Lymphatic channels(lymph nodes)

47

Which cancer is usually the result of metastasis

Liver cancer

48

Breast cancer usually spread to what part of the body first

Armpits (bc lymph nodes in armpit)

49

Early, primary site, has not metastasized, likely very treatable is what stage

Stage 1

50

Lymph node involvement is what stage

Stage 2

51

Metastasis to other body areas is what stage

Stage 3

52

Multiple organ involvement, usually not very treatable is what stage

Stage 4

53

Cancer of epithelial cell origin

Carcinoma

54

Examples of carcinomas

Skin cancer
Lung cancer
Basal cell carcinoma

55

Tumor from gland origin

Adenocarcinoma

56

Cancer of lymphatic system origin

Lymphoma

57

Example of lymphoma

Hodgekin’s disease

58

From connective tissue origin

Sarcoma

59

Two examples of sarcoma

Osteosarcoma
Leukemia

60

Bone cancer

Osteosarcoma

61

Bone marrow cancer

Leukemia

62

Physicians that diagnose and treat cancer patients

Oncologists