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Flashcards in Topic 8 Deck (50):
1

In general male brains are what in comparison to female brains

Bigger

2

Basic structural changes of the brain with age

Brain tissue shrinks

Gyrus shrink while sulci enlarge

Loss of brain neurons (most G0) in cerebrum: affects memory and cerebellum: affecting motor coordination

Increased number of glia (support) cells

Decrease in myelination of PNS, affecting control of body

3

Elderly require how many hours of sleep

5-6 hours

4

5 age related diseases of the nervous system

Alzheimer’s
CTE (Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy
Stroke
Parkinson’s disease
Dementia as a general disease category

5

Statistics for Alzheimer’s

Rate doubles every 5 years after age 60
Less than 1% under age 65 have AD
10-15% over age 65 have AD
50% over age 84 have AD

6

Mortality ranking of Alzheimer’s

#6 overall
#5 for women
#10 for men

7

Alzheimer’s is difficult to diagnose conclusively without

Autopsy

8

Those with Alzheimer’s are of high

Socioeconomic cost because they require 24/hr care

9

What are the two forms of Alzheimer’s

Familial or Early Onset
Late Onset or SDAT

10

SDAT is

Senile Dementia of Alzheimer’s Type

11

Between what ages are people affected by familial AD

45-65

12

Which chromosome(s) are associated with familial AD

Genes on chromosome 21 and presenilin genes on chromosome 14

13

Which form of AD had strong genetical links

Familial or early onset AD

14

What percentage of cases are familial or early onset AD

5%

15

Most common form of AD and the percentage of cases

Late Onset or SDAT (95%)

16

Which chromosome and gene is associated with late Onset or SDAT

APOE gene on chromosome 19

17

7 risk factors for AD

Advancing age
Family history
Head trauma
High cholesterol
Aluminum or iron exposure
Lack of education
Lack of mental activity/ challenges (learning new language or learning to play an instrument at the older age could help)

18

Protective factors for Alzheimer’s

Education
Daily mental activity
Estrogen supplementation
Anti-inflammatory medication
Cholesterol lowering medication
Folic acid supplementation
Smoking (nicotine)

19

Stage 1 AD

Short term memory loss (2-5yrs)

20

Stage 2 AD

Confusion stage (3-10 yrs)
-disorientation, withdrawal
-wandering, irritable, paranoid
-picks at body skin

21

Stage 3 AD

Dementia stage (1yr)
-lose ability to speak, recognize others
-can’t feed or control body functions
-require constant care


Result in death

22

7 pathologies for AD

Senile Plaques
Neurofibrillary tangles
Gliosis
APO-E apo lipo protein E
Presenilins
Angiopathy
Lack of Acetylcholine neurotransmitter

23

Part of brain responsible for short term memory

Hippocampus

24

Beta amyloid protein deposits

Senile Plaques

25

Helical protein tangles of Tau protein

Neurofibrillar tangles

26

Too many glia cells, lack of neurons

Gliosis

27

Seems to promote plaque and tangle formation

APO-E apo lipo protein E

28

Membrane proteins that are expressed

Presenilins

29

Amyloid accumulation in vessels of brain

Angiopathy

30

Degradation of the brain similar to AD that affects athletes in contact sports such as football that have had head trauma

CTE (chronic traumatic encephalopathy)

Seen in late 30s, 40s and as early as 20s
Memory loss, confusion, depression, suicide

31

Vessel hemorrhage or clot interrupts blood flow to brain tissue
Neurons die
3rd/4th leading cause of death over age 65

Stroke

32

Two kinds of stroke

Ischemic
Hemorrhagic

33

Blood clot which blocks blood flow

Ischemic stroke

34

Vessel bursts
Iron in hemoglobin damages brain tissue
Blood can also put pressure on brain

Hemorrhagic stroke

35

Most common stroke is

Ischemic (80%)



Hemorrhagic (20%)

36

Contralateral damage

Stroke on left side of brain affects right side of the body and vice versa

37

Treatment for ischemic strokes

TPA (tissue plasminogen activator) and other clot busting drugs if treated in first four hours
after damage, physical therapy is used
Prophylactic treatment w baby aspirin for prevention

38

Treatment for hemorrhagic strokes

Surgery

39

Dementia due to multiple strokes

Multi-infarct Demetria or “ministrokes”

40

Three forms of Parkinson’s disease

Viral induced
Drug induced
Primary

41

Example of viral induced Parkinson’s

Flu epidemic

42

Example of drug induced Parkinson’s

MPTP, China White

43

Cause of primary Parkinson’s

Usually age related

44

Pathology of Parkinson’s

Substantia niagra of brain loses ability to make dopamine

Appearance of Lewy body (plaques)

Major motor regulating area of body

45

Symptoms of Parkinson’s

Shaky tremors
Difficulty initiating motor movements
Sleep interruptions
Soft speech, lacks inflection
Dementia over time

46

Treatment for Parkinson’s

L Dopa Therapy (dopamine precursor)
MAO inhibitors (inhibit dopamine breakdown)
Fetal cell transplants
Rock Steady Boxing Therapy

47

How many forms of identified dementia

60 (Alzheimer’s: 55%), stroke, Parkinson’s, head trauma

48

What percentage of the population over age 65 have mild dementia

16-24%

49

What percentage of the population over 65 have severe form of dementia

8%

50

What percentage of the population over 85 have some form of dementia

30%