1 What do atoms of the same element have in common?
their atomic number/number of protons
2 Roughly how many elements are found naturally?
90 to 100
3 In what order are elements arranged in the periodic table?
in order of increasing atomic number
4 What do you call the columns in the periodic table?
5 What is special about the elements that are in the same group of the periodic table?
6 What is similar about the electronic configuration of elements in the same group?
same number of outer electrons
7 What is formed when a group 1 element reacts with water?
an alkali/metal hydroxide + hydrogen
8 What is the charge on the ions of elements in group 1?
9 The first two elements in group 1 are lithium and sodium. What is the third element?
10 What name is given to group 1 elements?
the alkali metals
11 What happens to the reactivity of the group 1 elements as you go down the group?
12 What is produced when lithium reacts with water?
lithium hydroxide and hydrogen
13 Why do alkali metals get more reactive as you go down the group?
the outermost electron is further and further away, and so more easily removed
14 What name is given to group 7 elements?
15 State an example of a group 7 element.
one of: fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine or astatine
16 What is the state of a substance at room temperature, if it has a melting point of ?7 °C and a boiling point of 59 °C?
17 What ion is in all acid solutions?
18 Do metals usually form ionic compounds with other metals, non-metals, neither or both?
19 State the formula of the compound formed when calcium reacts with bromine.
20 What is the name and colour of the only liquid halogen?
21 What does chlorine look like?
pale green gas
22 How is the appearance of iodine different from that of the three halogens above it in group 7?
solid and darker/black in colour
23 Name the compound formed when hydrogen reacts with chlorine.
24 What kind of solution is formed when hydrogen fluoride dissolves in water – acidic, neutral or alkaline?
25 Complete the equation: Ca(s) + Cl2(g) →
26 What ions are present in potassium fluoride?
K+ and FI-
27 State one similarity in the electronic configurations of fluorine and chlorine.
same number of outer electrons
28 Describe the trend in reactivity of group 7 elements.
decreasing down the group
29 What type of reaction occurs between chlorine and potassium bromide?
displacement and redox
30 What is formed when chlorine water is added to sodium bromide solution?
sodium chloride + bromine
31 What type of reaction is the reaction between chlorine water and sodium bromide solution an example of?
32 Fluorine atoms are more reactive than chlorine atoms. What does fluorine have fewer of that explains this?
33 H Describe reduction in terms of electron transfer.
gain of electrons
34 Where is group 0 found in the periodic table?
last column on right-hand side
35 What name is given to group 0 elements?
the noble gases
36 Name a group 0 element.
one of: helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon or radon
37 What is similar about the electronic configuration of all group 0 elements?
full outer shell
38 How are noble gases similar in terms of chemical properties?
39 Describe the trend in the boiling points of the elements, down group 0.
40 What happens to the reactants during a chemical reaction?
They are changed into new substances/products/used up.
41 What happens to the rate of most reactions as the reaction proceeds?
It slows down.
42 In reactions involving solutions, what happens to the rate if the concentrations at the start are decreased?
They become slower.
43 What size of solid lumps reacts fastest in chemical reactions: small, medium or large?
44 Apart from concentration and surface area, name one other variable that can change the speed of a chemical reaction.
temperature or pressure or catalyst
45 What happens in a precipitation reaction?
A solid forms.
46 What does it mean if effervescence is seen during a reaction?
A gas is being produced.
47 What happens to the concentration of reactants as a reaction proceeds?
48 What happens to the concentration of products as a reaction proceeds?
49 Why is there a loss in mass during the reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid?
A gas is given off/lost.
50 What usually happens to the rate of a reaction as the reaction proceeds?
It slows down.
51 What happens to the concentration of reactants as a reaction proceeds?
52 In a graph of concentration of products against time, how do you know when the reaction is finished?
The graph levels off.
53 A reaction is followed by measuring the volume of gas produced. What other measurement could be used?
measuring mass lost
54 What usually happens to the speed of a reaction as the temperature is decreased?
It gets slower.
55 How does increasing the concentration of a solution affect the rate of reaction?
It increases the rate.
56 What is the link between the size of the solid lumps and the surface area of a fixed mass of solid?
The smaller the lumps, the larger the surface area.
57 What type of solid lumps will react fastest?
the smallest lumps or powders
58 In reactions involving gases, how does gas pressure affect the reaction rate?
Increased pressure increases the rate.
59 What must the reacting molecules do for a reaction to occur?
They must collide with enough energy.
60 What has to happen before a reaction takes place?
Reacting molecules must collide with enough energy.
61 Describe two ways of measuring reaction rates in a reaction that produces a gas.
measuring volume of gas formed and mass lost by reactants
62 Explain how increasing concentrations increases the rate of a reaction.
More collisions occur.
63 What change in condition increases the speed of the reacting molecules?
64 How can you increase the surface area of a solid?
Divide the solid into smaller pieces.
65 Explain how increasing the surface area of a solid increases the rate of reaction.
More collisions can occur.
66 Which change in condition only affects reactions involving gases?
67 What is the activation energy in a reaction?
minimum energy needed by reactants for them to react
68 What does a catalyst do?
speeds up a chemical reaction
69 What do you call a biological catalyst?
70 What do we call any substance that dissolves in a solvent to form a solution?
71 What products form when an acid is neutralised by an alkali?
a salt and water
72 What do we call an insoluble substance that can form when two solutions are mixed?
73 Which substance, polystyrene or copper, is the better heat insulator?
74 Energy is transferred by heating in three ways: convection, radiation and what else?
75 Zinc reacts with copper sulfate solution. What solid product forms?
76 What gas is needed for fuels to burn?
77 Fuels may ignite if a spark hits them. What else can make a fuel ignite?
a flame/heating strongly
78 Is energy transferred to or from the electrolyte during electrolysis?
79 Give two ways by which energy is transferred to the surroundings in an explosion.
two from: by heating, by sound, by light, by a force
80 What type of reaction takes in energy from the surroundings?
81 What happens to the temperature of an acid when an alkali is added to it?
It goes up/increases.
82 What simple piece of apparatus is used to measure temperature?
83 What unit is used for energy?
84 What type of bond (ionic, covalent or metallic) exists between non-metals
85 In combustion reactions, is energy taken in from the surroundings or given out?
86 How is energy transferred between reactants and surroundings during dissolving?
87 Which of these reactions, displacement or precipitation, always heats up the surroundings?
88 The temperature goes down when ammonium nitrate dissolves in water. Is this an exothermic process or an endothermic process?
89 Energy is taken in so that bonds can be broken. Is this an exothermic or an endothermic process?
- Burning methane - endothermic or exothermic?