- What can link two atoms together?
- Which group of elements is stable and doesnt form compounds easily?
noble gases/group 0 in the periodic table
- How is an elements electron arrangement linked to its position in the periodic table?
Elements in the same group have the same number of electrons in their outer shell.
- How do positive and negative charges affect each other?
They attract each other.
- Which sub-atomic particles of atoms take part in chemical reactions?
- What is an ion?
an atom that is charged because it has lost or gained one or more electrons
- What happens when an ionic bond is formed?
One atom loses electrons to another atom to form oppositely charged ions that attract each other.
- Which kinds of elements are usually involved in the formation of ionic bonds?
metals and non-metals
- How is a positive ion formed and what is it called?
formed by the loss of electrons; cation
- How is a negative ion formed and what is it called?
formed by the gain of electrons; anion
- What are the forces called that hold ions together?
electrostatic forces / electrostatic attractions / ionic bond
- Why do atoms form ions?
to become more stable (like a noble gas)
- Explain why group 1 elements such as sodium and lithium form a 1+ ion.
They both have one electron in their outer shell and lose it to become stable.
- What are the charges on calcium, oxide and chloride ions?
2+, 2- and 1-
- What structure of regularly repeating ions do ionic compounds form?
lattice structure / ionic lattice
- What is the formula of the nitrate ion?
- What is the general name for a positive ion?
- What is the general name for a negative ion?
- What is the charge on the ions of elements in group 1 of the periodic table?
- What is the charge on the ions of elements in group 6 of the periodic table?
- What happens to the electrons in the outer shell of metal atoms when they form ions?
they are lost
- What is the name of the ionic compound containing calcium and bromine only?
- What is the name of the ionic compound containing potassium, chlorine and oxygen?
potassium chlorate (any element combined with oxygen is an ___ate )
- What does a bond do in an element or compound?
holds atoms together
- What are electrostatic forces of attraction?
attractions between positive and negative charges (positive and negative ions)
- Which part of an atoms structure is most involved when two atoms react?
the electrons (because they are on the outside of atoms)
- How many electrons are in the outer shell of the elements in groups 5, 6 and 7?
5, 6 and 7
- What kind of electron arrangement is most stable?
a complete/full outer shell
- What is the molecular formula of the very common compound formed between hydrogen and oxygen?
- How many more electrons does an oxygen atom need to get a complete outer shell?
2 more (it gains two electrons and becomes a 2- ion)
- What are molecules?
groups of atoms held together by (covalent) bonds
- Which type of atoms are covalent bonds found between
non-metal and non-metal
- What is a covalent bond?
a shared pair of electrons
- What happens to electrons between two atoms in a covalent bond
they are shared
- What kinds of elements usually form molecules?
- What kinds of bonds are found in molecules?
covalent bonds are found holding the atoms together in molecules (intermolecular forces are found between molecules)
- What is the name of the type of bond formed by sharing electron pairs within molecules?
- What term describes the number of atoms of each element bonded together in a molecule?
molecular formula (e.g. the molecular formula of a molecule of water is H2O)
- In oxygen and carbon dioxide, the atoms share two pairs of electrons. How do we describe these bonds?
double bonds (represented by = in a displayed formula)
- What is the name of the force that holds molecules together in gases and liquids
- How strong are the forces of attraction between molecules compared to the bonds within molecules?
They are relatively weak. (Covalent bonds holding atoms together are strong / Intermolecular forces holding molecules together are weak)
- Are simple molecules usually good conductors of electricity at room temperature?
No, they are poor conductors of electricity (as they have no charged particles)
- In what types of bonds are pairs of electrons shared?
- What are intermolecular forces?
forces of attraction between molecules
- Do simple molecules have strong intermolecular forces between them?
No. They are described as weak.
- Why are simple molecules poor conductors of electricity?
There are no charge carriers.
- What can you say about the formula of small, simple molecules?
They are fixed.
- What type of bonding is between the atoms in a molecule of water?
- What type of structure does water have?
simple molecular / simple covalent
- What strength of forces are there between different molecules of water?
weak (weak intermolecular forces)
- Does pure water conduct electricity?
no (Most water contains dissolved ions which makes it conduct. Pure water has no charge carriers)
- What type of structure do diamond and graphite have?
giant covalent, giant molecular
- What does the term malleable mean?
can be hammered or bent into a different shape
- What type of bonding does copper have?
- What atoms does metallic bonding happen between?
metal and metal (i.e it is found in metals!)
- What holds ions of metals together in a metallic bond?
a sea of delocalised electrons
- Why can metals conduct electricity?
electrons are free to move and carry charge
- What is a metallic bond?
the attraction between positive ions and delocalised electrons
- What are the particles inside a metal?
metal ions surrounded by sea of electrons
- Metals are ductile. What does ductile mean?
It can be drawn for example into wires