1 What are the chemical symbols for the elements carbon and hydrogen?
2 What type of bond (ionic, metallic or covalent) is found in simple molecules?
3 What state (solid, liquid or gas) is crude oil at room temperature?
4 How many shared electrons are there in a covalent bond?
5 Which element forms long chains in simple polymers such as polyethene
6 Which type of compound only contains hydrogen and carbon atoms?
7 Are ‘petrochemicals’ made from petrol, rock or crude oil?
8 How many years hundreds, thousands or millions) does it take for crude oil to form?
9 If something is not being made any more, is it described as ‘finite’ or as ‘non-renewable’?
10 About how many litres of crude oil does the world use each second 180, 1800 or 180 000)?
11 Name the two elements found in hydrocarbons.
12 Crude oil is forming extremely slowly. Does this make it a finite resource or a non-renewable one?
13 Petrol comes from crude oil. Give one use for petrol.
fuel for cars
14 Name the main hydrocarbon found in natural gas.
15 Diesel oil is being used up faster than crude oil forms. Does this make it a finite resource or a non-renewable one?
16 Name the polymer formed from ethene, which comes from crude oil.
17 Name the state change that occurs when a gas becomes a liquid.
18 What bonds or forces exist between molecules ionic, covalent or intermolecular)?
19 Compared with metals, do simple molecules typically have high boiling points or low ones?
20 Name the method used to separate a mixture of two or more liquids with different boiling points.
21 Give one typical use of fuel oil.
fuel for large ships/fuel for some power stations
22 Crude oil is a source of feedstock. Give one other type of useful substance from crude oil.
23 Is crude oil described as a finite resource or an infinite resource?
24 Name a non-renewable fossil fuel obtained from crude oil.
petrol/kerosene/diesel oil/fuel oil
25 Name the main non-renewable fossil fuel in natural gas.
26 What process is used to separate crude oil into useful mixtures?
27 Give one use for the gases fraction from crude oil.
28 Which fraction is more easily ignited, bitumen or kerosene?
29 Which fraction is more viscous, bitumen or kerosene?
30 Which hydrocarbons have the greater boiling points, the ones with larger molecules or the ones with smaller molecules?
31 Which elements are present in hydrocarbon molecules?
32 What is the most abundant element in air?
33 Which gas reacts with hydrocarbons when they burn?
34 Name one fossil fuel used in cars.
35 Name a gas produced when carbon burns.
carbon monoxide/carbon dioxide
36 What compound forms when hydrogen burns in air?
37 What is the main fossil fuel in natural gas?
38 To get a roaring blue Bunsen burner flame, do you open or close the air hole?
39 Which cells in the blood carry oxygen around the body?
red blood cells
40 What is the black solid element found in soot and smoke?
41 What are the products of the complete combustion of hydrocarbon fuels?
carbon dioxide; water
42 Which gas is produced during incomplete combustion, but not complete combustion, of hydrocarbon fuels?
43 What solid element is produced during the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbon fuels?
44 Name the fuel used for large ships and some power stations.
45 Which gas reacts with hydrocarbon fuels when they burn?
46 What is the pH of pure water?
47 Name the gas formed when acids react with metals.
48 Name the gas formed when acids react with calcium carbonate.
carbon dioxide (CASHOCO)
49 Name the most abundant gas in the air.
50 Name the solid yellow element placed below oxygen in group 6 of the period table.
51 Name one hydrocarbon fuel used for cars.
52 Which fraction ignites more easily, kerosene or fuel oil?
53 Which fraction contains hydrocarbon molecules with the longer molecules, gases or bitumen?
54 Name the process used to separate crude oil into simpler, more useful mixtures.
55 Name the homologous series to which ethane belongs.
56 What are the two products of complete combustion of ethane?
carbon dioxide; water
57 What type of rain forms when sulfur dioxide, from some hydrocarbon fuels, dissolves in rainwater?
58 Name the greenhouse gas released when any hydrocarbon fuel burns.
59 Which occupies the least volume, 1 kg of hydrogen gas or 1 kg of liquid hydrogen?
1 kg of liquid hydrogen
60 Is crude oil a finite resource or a renewable resource?
61 Which common compound of carbon and oxygen is thought to have been an abundant gas in Earth’s early atmosphere?
62 What are the names of the Earth’s two nearest neighbouring planets?
Venus and Mars
63 Name the biological process that increases oxygen levels and reduces carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere.
64 What geological feature of a planet’s surface can give out large amounts of hot gas?
65 Name the physical process that describes changing a vapour into liquid.
66 What type of reaction occurs when a metal gains oxygen?
67 How old do scientists think the Earth is: 4.5 billion years, 4.5 million years or 450 000 years?
4.5 billion years
68 What sort of rocks are formed from layers of deposited material?
69 Which gaseous element forms most of the Earth’s atmosphere today?
70 Titan is an icy moon of Saturn. What is ice made of?
71 Where were the gases that formed the Earth’s early atmosphere released from?
72 What two compounds are thought to have formed most of the Earth’s early atmosphere?
water, carbon dioxide
73 What is the chemical test for carbon dioxide?
turns limewater milky/cloudy
74 What element forms most of the Earth’s atmosphere today?
75 Which element that makes up about 21% of the atmosphere of Earth today was not thought to be present in the atmosphere 4.5 billion years ago?
76 As the Earth evolved, chemical reactions with what element are thought to have slowed the release of oxygen to the atmosphere?
77 What gas given out by volcanoes is thought to have condensed to form oceans?
78 What factor has caused changes in Earth’s atmosphere but is not found on Venus or Mars?
79 What process in plants releases oxygen?
80 What is the chemical test for oxygen?
relights a glowing splint
81 The relighting of a glowing splint is the test for what gas?
82 Why did the formation of the Earth’s early oceans cause a decrease in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations?
the carbon dioxide dissolved in the water
83 What do some sea creatures use dissolved carbon dioxide to help them do?
84 What sort of chemical compound are shells made from: an oxide, a carbonate or a chloride?
85 What is the formula for calcium carbonate?
86 What process in plants and algae causes a reduction of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations?
87 Photosynthesis affects the concentrations of two gases in the atmosphere – carbon dioxide, and what other gas?
88 Give the name of some of the earliest photosynthetic microorganisms.
89 Certain gases in the atmosphere keep the Earth warm. What is this effect called?
90 Give the name of one of the most common greenhouse gases.
carbon dioxide, methane, water vapour
91 Name three greenhouse gases.
methane, carbon dioxide, water vapour, CFCs and many others
92 Energy is transferred from the Sun by what?
93 The warm Earth emits what type of electromagnetic waves?
94 In an atmosphere containing greenhouse gases, what happens to some of the infrared waves that the Earth emits?
absorbed and re-emitted in all directions
95 Why do modern thermometers give better quality evidence than those from the 18th century?
thermometers are now more accurate/have a better resolution
96 What word beginning with c describes the way in which two variables appear to be linked because they show similar patterns of change?
97 What term is used to describe the changes to average weather conditions around the world?
98 Evidence for carbon dioxide variations over the last 800 000 years comes from Antarctica. In what form is this evidence?
99 What type of human activity has mainly increased the level of greenhouse gases since 1750?
burning fossil fuels
100 The acidity of the oceans is increasing due to more carbon dioxide dissolving in the water. What is this doing to the pH of the oceans?
decreasing it/making it more acidic