- What term describes a substance that attacks metals, stonework and skin?
- Name an acidic solution found in the kitchen.
vinegar or fruit juice, etc.
- Name an alkaline solution used in the kitchen.
bleach or oven cleaner or soap, etc.
- What type of substance turns litmus paper red?
- How does an indicator show the acidity or alkalinity of solutions?
by changing colour
- What pH values represent alkaline solutions?
above 7 or 8 to 14
- What happens in all chemical reactions?
new substances are formed
- What kind of reaction occurs between an acid and an alkali?
- What do you call a solution that is neither acidic nor alkaline.
- Give the name and formula of a common laboratory acid.
hydrochloric acid (HCl) or nitric acid (HNO3) or sulfuric acid (H2SO4), etc.
- Which ion is in excess in all acidic solutions?
hydrogen ions or H+ ions
- Which ion is in excess in all alkaline solutions?
hydroxide ions or OH– ions
- What scale is used for measuring acidic and alkaline properties?
the pH scale
- Name three examples of acid/alkali indicators apart from universal indicator.
litmus, methyl orange and phenolphthalein
- What would you use to measure pH to one decimal place?
a pH meter
- What pH values are acidic?
- What colour is phenolphthalein in a solution with a pH of 2?
- What happens to the pH as the H+ ion concentration increases?
- If a solution has the same concentration of hydrogen ions as hydroxide ions, how is it described?
neutral or pH = 7
- If 2 g of salt is dissolved in 250 cm3 of solution, what is its concentration in g dm–3?
8 g dm–3
- What word describes a solution that contains a large amount of solute in a small volume of solvent?
- How can a solution be made more dilute?
by adding solvent/water
- If 24 g of acid is dissolved in 600 cm3 of solution, what is its concentration in g dm–3?
40 g dm–3
- What happens when strong acid molecules dissolve in water?
they dissociate completely into ions
- What kind of reaction occurs between an acid and a base?
- What happens to the pH of an acid as it reacts with a neutraliser?
- What is formed when an acid reacts with a base like a metal oxide?
salt + water
- What acid would be used to make zinc sulfate from zinc oxide?
sulfuric acid (sulphuric acid makes sulphates!)
- What process can be used to separate an insoluble solid from a liquid?
- How can a sample of a dissolved salt be obtained from a salt solution?
evaporation of the water
- In general, what is the pH of an alkaline solution?
greater than 7
- Which ions, hydrogen ions or hydroxide ions, are released by alkalis in solution?
hydroxide ions (OH-)
- What colour is litmus solution in acidic solutions?
- What name is given to substances that react with acids to form a salt and water only?
bases (bases are metal oxides and hydroxides, soluble bases are alkalis)
- Which salt is formed when copper oxide reacts with sulfuric acid?
- What type of reaction happens between an acid and a base?
- What type of solution has a pH of 7?
- Name the acid that has the formula HCl.
- What colour is phenolphthalein in alkaline solutions?
pink (it is colourless in acid conditions)
- What is the formula for sulfuric acid?
- Name the salt produced when sodium hydroxide reacts with hydrochloric acid.
- Which ions, hydrogen ions or hydroxide ions, are released by acids in solution?
hydrogen ions (H+)
- What substance, other than a salt, is produced when an alkali neutralises an acid?
- What name is given to substances that are soluble bases?
- What is the formula for hydrochloric acid?
- What type of solution has a pH above 7?
- What colour is phenolphthalein in acidic solutions?
colourless – not ‘clear’
- Name a piece of apparatus used to measure volumes of liquid.
- Name the separation method used to produce crystals from a solution.
- Name the acid needed to make ammonium nitrate.
- Which acid can be used to make copper sulfate?
- Which base can be used to make copper sulfate?
- Which substance is needed to complete the general equation: acid + base makes salt + …?
- What is the formula of nitric acid?
- What is the name of the salt formed from zinc oxide and hydrochloric acid?
- What is the formula of the salt formed from calcium oxide and hydrochloric acid?
- Which ions are present in large quantities in aqueous solutions of all acids?
H+ Hydrogen ions
- Which ions are present in large quantities in aqueous solutions of all alkalis?
OH– Hydroxide ions
- Which gas is formed when dilute hydrochloric acid reacts with magnesium?
- Which gas is formed when dilute hydrochloric acid reacts with magnesium carbonate?
carbon dioxide (CASHOCO)
- What acid can be used to make copper chloride?
hydrochloric acid (hydrochloric acid makes chlorides)
- What gas is given off when magnesium reacts with dilute sulfuric acid?
- How do you identify Hydrogen gas?
gives a squeaky pop with a lighted splint
- What is seen when magnesium is added to dilute sulfuric acid?
effervescence/fizzing/bubbles (yes you know this is hydrogen, but you can not see that!!)
- What is the formula of magnesium sulfate?
- What gas is produced when copper carbonate is added to dilute nitric acid?
carbon dioxide (CASHOCO)
- How do you test for Carbon Dioxide?
it turns limewater milky
- What is the formula of the salt produced when copper carbonate reacts with nitric acid?
- Sodium chloride dissolves in water to form a solution. Which is the solute?
- What do we call the liquid that dissolves a solute to form a solution.