Topic 8 Fuels and Earth science Flashcards Preview

Edexcel GCSE Combined Science (Chemistry) 2022 > Topic 8 Fuels and Earth science > Flashcards

Flashcards in Topic 8 Fuels and Earth science Deck (100)
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1
Q

1 What are the chemical symbols for the elements carbon and hydrogen?

A

C; H

2
Q

2 What type of bond (ionic, metallic or covalent) is found in simple molecules?

A

covalent

3
Q

3 What state (solid, liquid or gas) is crude oil at room temperature?

A

liquid

4
Q

4 How many shared electrons are there in a covalent bond?

A

two

5
Q

5 Which element forms long chains in simple polymers such as polyethene

A

carbon

6
Q

6 Which type of compound only contains hydrogen and carbon atoms?

A

hydrocarbon

7
Q

7 Are ‘petrochemicals’ made from petrol, rock or crude oil?

A

crude oil

8
Q

8 How many years hundreds, thousands or millions) does it take for crude oil to form?

A

millions

9
Q

9 If something is not being made any more, is it described as ‘finite’ or as ‘non-renewable’?

A

finite

10
Q

10 About how many litres of crude oil does the world use each second 180, 1800 or 180 000)?

A

180 000

11
Q

11 Name the two elements found in hydrocarbons.

A

carbon; hydrogen

12
Q

12 Crude oil is forming extremely slowly. Does this make it a finite resource or a non-renewable one?

A

finite

13
Q

13 Petrol comes from crude oil. Give one use for petrol.

A

fuel for cars

14
Q

14 Name the main hydrocarbon found in natural gas.

A

methane

15
Q

15 Diesel oil is being used up faster than crude oil forms. Does this make it a finite resource or a non-renewable one?

A

non-renewable

16
Q

16 Name the polymer formed from ethene, which comes from crude oil.

A

polyethene

17
Q

17 Name the state change that occurs when a gas becomes a liquid.

A

condensing/condensation

18
Q

18 What bonds or forces exist between molecules ionic, covalent or intermolecular)?

A

intermolecular forces

19
Q

19 Compared with metals, do simple molecules typically have high boiling points or low ones?

A

low

20
Q

20 Name the method used to separate a mixture of two or more liquids with different boiling points.

A

fractional distillation

21
Q

21 Give one typical use of fuel oil.

A

fuel for large ships/fuel for some power stations

22
Q

22 Crude oil is a source of feedstock. Give one other type of useful substance from crude oil.

A

fuels

23
Q

23 Is crude oil described as a finite resource or an infinite resource?

A

finite

24
Q

24 Name a non-renewable fossil fuel obtained from crude oil.

A

petrol/kerosene/diesel oil/fuel oil

25
Q

25 Name the main non-renewable fossil fuel in natural gas.

A

methane

26
Q

26 What process is used to separate crude oil into useful mixtures?

A

fractional distillation

27
Q

27 Give one use for the gases fraction from crude oil.

A

domestic heating/cooking

28
Q

28 Which fraction is more easily ignited, bitumen or kerosene?

A

kerosene

29
Q

29 Which fraction is more viscous, bitumen or kerosene?

A

bitumen

30
Q

30 Which hydrocarbons have the greater boiling points, the ones with larger molecules or the ones with smaller molecules?

A

larger molecules

31
Q

31 Which elements are present in hydrocarbon molecules?

A

carbon; hydrogen

32
Q

32 What is the most abundant element in air?

A

nitrogen/N2

33
Q

33 Which gas reacts with hydrocarbons when they burn?

A

oxygen/O2

34
Q

34 Name one fossil fuel used in cars.

A

petrol/diesel oil

35
Q

35 Name a gas produced when carbon burns.

A

carbon monoxide/carbon dioxide

36
Q

36 What compound forms when hydrogen burns in air?

A

water

37
Q

37 What is the main fossil fuel in natural gas?

A

methane

38
Q

38 To get a roaring blue Bunsen burner flame, do you open or close the air hole?

A

open it

39
Q

39 Which cells in the blood carry oxygen around the body?

A

red blood cells

40
Q

40 What is the black solid element found in soot and smoke?

A

carbon

41
Q

41 What are the products of the complete combustion of hydrocarbon fuels?

A

carbon dioxide; water

42
Q

42 Which gas is produced during incomplete combustion, but not complete combustion, of hydrocarbon fuels?

A

carbon monoxide

43
Q

43 What solid element is produced during the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbon fuels?

A

carbon

44
Q

44 Name the fuel used for large ships and some power stations.

A

fuel oil

45
Q

45 Which gas reacts with hydrocarbon fuels when they burn?

A

oxygen

46
Q

46 What is the pH of pure water?

A

7

47
Q

47 Name the gas formed when acids react with metals.

A

hydrogen (MASH)

48
Q

48 Name the gas formed when acids react with calcium carbonate.

A

carbon dioxide (CASHOCO)

49
Q

49 Name the most abundant gas in the air.

A

nitrogen

50
Q

50 Name the solid yellow element placed below oxygen in group 6 of the period table.

A

sulfur

51
Q

51 Name one hydrocarbon fuel used for cars.

A

petrol; diesel

52
Q

52 Which fraction ignites more easily, kerosene or fuel oil?

A

kerosene

53
Q

53 Which fraction contains hydrocarbon molecules with the longer molecules, gases or bitumen?

A

bitumen

54
Q

54 Name the process used to separate crude oil into simpler, more useful mixtures.

A

fractional distillation

55
Q

55 Name the homologous series to which ethane belongs.

A

alkanes

56
Q

56 What are the two products of complete combustion of ethane?

A

carbon dioxide; water

57
Q

57 What type of rain forms when sulfur dioxide, from some hydrocarbon fuels, dissolves in rainwater?

A

acid

58
Q

58 Name the greenhouse gas released when any hydrocarbon fuel burns.

A

carbon dioxide

59
Q

59 Which occupies the least volume, 1 kg of hydrogen gas or 1 kg of liquid hydrogen?

A

1 kg of liquid hydrogen

60
Q

60 Is crude oil a finite resource or a renewable resource?

A

finite resource

61
Q

61 Which common compound of carbon and oxygen is thought to have been an abundant gas in Earth’s early atmosphere?

A

carbon dioxide

62
Q

62 What are the names of the Earth’s two nearest neighbouring planets?

A

Venus and Mars

63
Q

63 Name the biological process that increases oxygen levels and reduces carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere.

A

photosynthesis

64
Q

64 What geological feature of a planet’s surface can give out large amounts of hot gas?

A

volcano

65
Q

65 Name the physical process that describes changing a vapour into liquid.

A

condensation

66
Q

66 What type of reaction occurs when a metal gains oxygen?

A

oxidation

67
Q

67 How old do scientists think the Earth is: 4.5 billion years, 4.5 million years or 450 000 years?

A

4.5 billion years

68
Q

68 What sort of rocks are formed from layers of deposited material?

A

sedimentary rocks

69
Q

69 Which gaseous element forms most of the Earth’s atmosphere today?

A

nitrogen

70
Q

70 Titan is an icy moon of Saturn. What is ice made of?

A

water

71
Q

71 Where were the gases that formed the Earth’s early atmosphere released from?

A

volcanoes

72
Q

72 What two compounds are thought to have formed most of the Earth’s early atmosphere?

A

water, carbon dioxide

73
Q

73 What is the chemical test for carbon dioxide?

A

turns limewater milky/cloudy

74
Q

74 What element forms most of the Earth’s atmosphere today?

A

nitrogen

75
Q

75 Which element that makes up about 21% of the atmosphere of Earth today was not thought to be present in the atmosphere 4.5 billion years ago?

A

oxygen

76
Q

76 As the Earth evolved, chemical reactions with what element are thought to have slowed the release of oxygen to the atmosphere?

A

iron

77
Q

77 What gas given out by volcanoes is thought to have condensed to form oceans?

A

water vapour

78
Q

78 What factor has caused changes in Earth’s atmosphere but is not found on Venus or Mars?

A

life

79
Q

79 What process in plants releases oxygen?

A

photosynthesis

80
Q

80 What is the chemical test for oxygen?

A

relights a glowing splint

81
Q

81 The relighting of a glowing splint is the test for what gas?

A

oxygen

82
Q

82 Why did the formation of the Earth’s early oceans cause a decrease in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations?

A

the carbon dioxide dissolved in the water

83
Q

83 What do some sea creatures use dissolved carbon dioxide to help them do?

A

form shells

84
Q

84 What sort of chemical compound are shells made from: an oxide, a carbonate or a chloride?

A

carbonate

85
Q

85 What is the formula for calcium carbonate?

A

CaCO3

86
Q

86 What process in plants and algae causes a reduction of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations?

A

photosynthesis

87
Q

87 Photosynthesis affects the concentrations of two gases in the atmosphere – carbon dioxide, and what other gas?

A

oxygen

88
Q

88 Give the name of some of the earliest photosynthetic microorganisms.

A

cyanobacteria

89
Q

89 Certain gases in the atmosphere keep the Earth warm. What is this effect called?

A

greenhouse effect

90
Q

90 Give the name of one of the most common greenhouse gases.

A

carbon dioxide, methane, water vapour

91
Q

91 Name three greenhouse gases.

A

methane, carbon dioxide, water vapour, CFCs and many others

92
Q

92 Energy is transferred from the Sun by what?

A

infrared/electromagnetic) radiation/waves/light

93
Q

93 The warm Earth emits what type of electromagnetic waves?

A

infrared

94
Q

94 In an atmosphere containing greenhouse gases, what happens to some of the infrared waves that the Earth emits?

A

absorbed and re-emitted in all directions

95
Q

95 Why do modern thermometers give better quality evidence than those from the 18th century?

A

thermometers are now more accurate/have a better resolution

96
Q

96 What word beginning with c describes the way in which two variables appear to be linked because they show similar patterns of change?

A

correlation

97
Q

97 What term is used to describe the changes to average weather conditions around the world?

A

climate change

98
Q

98 Evidence for carbon dioxide variations over the last 800 000 years comes from Antarctica. In what form is this evidence?

A

ice cores

99
Q

99 What type of human activity has mainly increased the level of greenhouse gases since 1750?

A

burning fossil fuels

100
Q

100 The acidity of the oceans is increasing due to more carbon dioxide dissolving in the water. What is this doing to the pH of the oceans?

A

decreasing it/making it more acidic