Topic 1 Structure of atom and Periodic Table Flashcards Preview

Edexcel GCSE Combined Science (Chemistry) 2022 > Topic 1 Structure of atom and Periodic Table > Flashcards

Flashcards in Topic 1 Structure of atom and Periodic Table Deck (60)
Loading flashcards...
1
Q

1 What A is all matter made of?

A

atoms

2
Q

2 Which scientist first came up with a model of what atoms are like?

A

Dalton

3
Q

3 How did Dalton describe atoms?

A

tiny indestructible spheres

4
Q

4 How did he use his model to explain elements?

A

all the atoms in an element were identical (and different from other elements)

5
Q

5 What is the difference between an atom and a molecule?

A

molecules contain two or more atoms chemically joined together in a group

6
Q

6 How did Dalton explain what happened when compounds were formed?

A

atoms of different elements joined together to form the compound

7
Q

7 What tiny particles flow in an electric current?

A

electrons

8
Q

8 What charge do electrons particles have?

A

negative

9
Q

9 What particles are found in an atom?

A

protons, neutrons and electrons

10
Q

10 What is the nucleus of an atom?

A

tiny central part of an atom made up of protons and neutrons

11
Q

11 How have Daltons ideas about atoms changed?

A

atoms are not indestructible but are made up of smaller particles (protons, neutrons and electrons)

12
Q

12 What are the names of the three main subatomic particles?

A

protons, neutrons, electrons

13
Q

13 What is the nucleus of a helium atom made up of?

A

protons and neutrons

14
Q

14 How are electrons arranged in an atom?

A

circling/orbiting the nucleus in regions called shells

15
Q

15 How do protons and electrons compare in terms of relative charge?

A

protons have a positive (+1) charge and electrons have a negative (-1) charge

16
Q

16 Why are most atoms neutral?

A

they have the same number of protons and electrons and so equal positive and negative charges

17
Q

17 What is the fundamental difference between atoms of different elements?

A

they contain different numbers of protons

18
Q

18 How does the size of a nucleus compare to the size of the atom?

A

the nucleus is tiny compared to the size of the atom

19
Q

19 How many protons are there in an atom with an atomic number of 26?

A

26

20
Q

20 How many neutrons are there in an atom with an atomic number of 26 and a mass number of 56?

A

30 (56 - 26) The number of neutrons is the mass number minus the atomic number

21
Q

21 Which subatomic particles are found in the nuclei of most atoms?

A

protons and neutrons

22
Q

22 What does the atomic number of an atom tell you about its structure?

A

the number of protons in an atom

23
Q

23 What does the mass number of an atom equal?

A

the number of protons plus the number of neutrons

24
Q

24 What will be the same about atoms of the same element?

A

they will have the same atomic number and same number of protons

25
Q

25 Where is most of the mass of an atom found?

A

in the nucleus

26
Q

26 Which subatomic particles in an atom have negligible mass?

A

electrons

27
Q

27 How many electrons are in an atom with a mass number of 56 and an atomic number of 26?

A

26 (It will have 26 protons and therefore 26 electrons if it is neutral)

28
Q

28 How many protons, neutrons and electrons are in an atom that has an atomic number of 13 and a mass number of 27?

A

13 protons, 14 neutrons, 13 electrons

29
Q

29 What are isotopes?

A

atoms with the same atomic number but different mass numbers (this is due to them having a different number of neutrons)

30
Q

30 What type of atom is used as the standard for comparing masses and working out relative atomic masses of elements?

A

carbon-12

31
Q

31 Which element has the chemical symbol O?

A

oxygen

32
Q

32 What is the chemical symbol for carbon?

A

C

33
Q

33 Which element has the chemical symbol Mg?

A

magnesium

34
Q

34 What is the chemical symbol for sodium?

A

Na

35
Q

35 Which type of substance is found in the periodic table – elements, compounds or mixtures?

A

elements (its called the Periodic Table of Elements !!)

36
Q

36 What is a vertical column in the periodic table called?

A

group

37
Q

37 What is a horizontal row in the periodic table called?

A

period

38
Q

38 What is the number on the periodic table used to compare the masses of atoms of different elements (it takes into account the different isotopes and amounts) ?

A

relative atomic masses

39
Q

39 Name the Russian chemist who developed a periodic table in 1869.

A

Mendeleev/Dmitri Mendeleev

40
Q

40 In general, what is a scientific prediction?

A

what you think will happen and why you think this

41
Q

41 In what year did Mendeleev first develop a periodic table?

A

1869

42
Q

42 About how many elements are there in the modern periodic table?

A

about 100 or 118 exactly

43
Q

43 Where are the non-metals placed in the modern periodic table?

A

right-hand side/top right

44
Q

44 Which number tells you how many protons there are in a nucleus?

A

atomic number/proton number

45
Q

45 Sodium atoms have 11 electrons. How many protons do they have?

A

11 (Because it is a neutral atom and the number of protons = the number of electrons)

46
Q

46 Where are electrons found in an atom?

A

around the nucleus/in shells/in energy levels

47
Q

47 What is a period in the modern periodic table?

A

a row of elements (a row is the one that goes along a column is the one that goes down!!)

48
Q

48 What is a vertical column in the modern periodic table called?

A

group

49
Q

49 Which element’s position was swapped with tellurium by Mendeleev?

A

iodine (He swapped them to ensure that they were in the correct group, with elements of similar properties)

50
Q

50 What property did Mendeleev use to order the elements?

A

atomic weight/relative atomic mass (Medeleev used mass the modern periodic table uses atomic number!!)

51
Q

51 What do modern atomic numbers tell you about an atom?

A

the number of protons in the nucleus

52
Q

52 Where are elements with similar properties placed in the periodic table?

A

in the same groups/columns

53
Q

53 Where do the atomic numbers increase by 1 each time in the periodic table?

A

in a period (as you move along a period the atomic number increases by 1)

54
Q

54 Where are the shells found in an atom?

A

around the nucleus

55
Q

55 Why might a modern periodic table have gaps in it?

A

for as yet undiscovered/synthesised elements (they are all at the end of the Modern Periodic Table)

56
Q

56 Name a group 0 element.

A

helium/neon/argon/krypton/xenon/radon/ununoctium

57
Q

57 Is an atom a zero-, one-, two,- or three- dimensional object?

A

three-dimensional

58
Q

58 Name the physicist who discovered a relationship between atomic number and X-rays emitted by atoms bombarded by electrons.

A

Moseley/Henry Moseley

59
Q

59 The atomic number of chlorine is 17. How many electrons do its atoms have?

A

17 (It has 17 protons and is neutral and therefore has 17 electrons)

60
Q
  1. What are the two main isotopes of chlorine?
A

Chlorine-35 and Chlorine-37