Topic 7 Groups rates and energy Flashcards Preview

Edexcel GCSE Combined Science (Chemistry) 2022 > Topic 7 Groups rates and energy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Topic 7 Groups rates and energy Deck (90)
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1
Q

1 What do atoms of the same element have in common?

A

their atomic number/number of protons

2
Q

2 Roughly how many elements are found naturally?

A

90 to 100

3
Q

3 In what order are elements arranged in the periodic table?

A

in order of increasing atomic number

4
Q

4 What do you call the columns in the periodic table?

A

groups

5
Q

5 What is special about the elements that are in the same group of the periodic table?

A

similar properties

6
Q

6 What is similar about the electronic configuration of elements in the same group?

A

same number of outer electrons

7
Q

7 What is formed when a group 1 element reacts with water?

A

an alkali/metal hydroxide + hydrogen

8
Q

8 What is the charge on the ions of elements in group 1?

A

1+

9
Q

9 The first two elements in group 1 are lithium and sodium. What is the third element?

A

potassium

10
Q

10 What name is given to group 1 elements?

A

the alkali metals

11
Q

11 What happens to the reactivity of the group 1 elements as you go down the group?

A

it increases

12
Q

12 What is produced when lithium reacts with water?

A

lithium hydroxide and hydrogen

13
Q

13 Why do alkali metals get more reactive as you go down the group?

A

the outermost electron is further and further away, and so more easily removed

14
Q

14 What name is given to group 7 elements?

A

the halogens

15
Q

15 State an example of a group 7 element.

A

one of: fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine or astatine

16
Q

16 What is the state of a substance at room temperature, if it has a melting point of ?7 °C and a boiling point of 59 °C?

A

liquid

17
Q

17 What ion is in all acid solutions?

A

H+

18
Q

18 Do metals usually form ionic compounds with other metals, non-metals, neither or both?

A

non-metals

19
Q

19 State the formula of the compound formed when calcium reacts with bromine.

A

CaBr2

20
Q

20 What is the name and colour of the only liquid halogen?

A

bromine, brown

21
Q

21 What does chlorine look like?

A

pale green gas

22
Q

22 How is the appearance of iodine different from that of the three halogens above it in group 7?

A

solid and darker/black in colour

23
Q

23 Name the compound formed when hydrogen reacts with chlorine.

A

hydrogen chloride

24
Q

24 What kind of solution is formed when hydrogen fluoride dissolves in water – acidic, neutral or alkaline?

A

acidic

25
Q

25 Complete the equation: Ca(s) + Cl2(g) →

A

CaCl2(s)

26
Q

26 What ions are present in potassium fluoride?

A

K+ and FI-

27
Q

27 State one similarity in the electronic configurations of fluorine and chlorine.

A

same number of outer electrons

28
Q

28 Describe the trend in reactivity of group 7 elements.

A

decreasing down the group

29
Q

29 What type of reaction occurs between chlorine and potassium bromide?

A

displacement and redox

30
Q

30 What is formed when chlorine water is added to sodium bromide solution?

A

sodium chloride + bromine

31
Q

31 What type of reaction is the reaction between chlorine water and sodium bromide solution an example of?

A

displacement, redox

32
Q

32 Fluorine atoms are more reactive than chlorine atoms. What does fluorine have fewer of that explains this?

A

electron shells

33
Q

33 H Describe reduction in terms of electron transfer.

A

gain of electrons

34
Q

34 Where is group 0 found in the periodic table?

A

last column on right-hand side

35
Q

35 What name is given to group 0 elements?

A

the noble gases

36
Q

36 Name a group 0 element.

A

one of: helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon or radon

37
Q

37 What is similar about the electronic configuration of all group 0 elements?

A

full outer shell

38
Q

38 How are noble gases similar in terms of chemical properties?

A

all unreactive

39
Q

39 Describe the trend in the boiling points of the elements, down group 0.

A

increasing

40
Q

40 What happens to the reactants during a chemical reaction?

A

They are changed into new substances/products/used up.

41
Q

41 What happens to the rate of most reactions as the reaction proceeds?

A

It slows down.

42
Q

42 In reactions involving solutions, what happens to the rate if the concentrations at the start are decreased?

A

They become slower.

43
Q

43 What size of solid lumps reacts fastest in chemical reactions: small, medium or large?

A

small

44
Q

44 Apart from concentration and surface area, name one other variable that can change the speed of a chemical reaction.

A

temperature or pressure or catalyst

45
Q

45 What happens in a precipitation reaction?

A

A solid forms.

46
Q

46 What does it mean if effervescence is seen during a reaction?

A

A gas is being produced.

47
Q

47 What happens to the concentration of reactants as a reaction proceeds?

A

It decreases.

48
Q

48 What happens to the concentration of products as a reaction proceeds?

A

It increases.

49
Q

49 Why is there a loss in mass during the reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid?

A

A gas is given off/lost.

50
Q

50 What usually happens to the rate of a reaction as the reaction proceeds?

A

It slows down.

51
Q

51 What happens to the concentration of reactants as a reaction proceeds?

A

It decreases.

52
Q

52 In a graph of concentration of products against time, how do you know when the reaction is finished?

A

The graph levels off.

53
Q

53 A reaction is followed by measuring the volume of gas produced. What other measurement could be used?

A

measuring mass lost

54
Q

54 What usually happens to the speed of a reaction as the temperature is decreased?

A

It gets slower.

55
Q

55 How does increasing the concentration of a solution affect the rate of reaction?

A

It increases the rate.

56
Q

56 What is the link between the size of the solid lumps and the surface area of a fixed mass of solid?

A

The smaller the lumps, the larger the surface area.

57
Q

57 What type of solid lumps will react fastest?

A

the smallest lumps or powders

58
Q

58 In reactions involving gases, how does gas pressure affect the reaction rate?

A

Increased pressure increases the rate.

59
Q

59 What must the reacting molecules do for a reaction to occur?

A

They must collide with enough energy.

60
Q

60 What has to happen before a reaction takes place?

A

Reacting molecules must collide with enough energy.

61
Q

61 Describe two ways of measuring reaction rates in a reaction that produces a gas.

A

measuring volume of gas formed and mass lost by reactants

62
Q

62 Explain how increasing concentrations increases the rate of a reaction.

A

More collisions occur.

63
Q

63 What change in condition increases the speed of the reacting molecules?

A

increasing temperature

64
Q

64 How can you increase the surface area of a solid?

A

Divide the solid into smaller pieces.

65
Q

65 Explain how increasing the surface area of a solid increases the rate of reaction.

A

More collisions can occur.

66
Q

66 Which change in condition only affects reactions involving gases?

A

pressure

67
Q

67 What is the activation energy in a reaction?

A

minimum energy needed by reactants for them to react

68
Q

68 What does a catalyst do?

A

speeds up a chemical reaction

69
Q

69 What do you call a biological catalyst?

A

an enzyme

70
Q

70 What do we call any substance that dissolves in a solvent to form a solution?

A

solute

71
Q

71 What products form when an acid is neutralised by an alkali?

A

a salt and water

72
Q

72 What do we call an insoluble substance that can form when two solutions are mixed?

A

precipitate

73
Q

73 Which substance, polystyrene or copper, is the better heat insulator?

A

polystyrene

74
Q

74 Energy is transferred by heating in three ways: convection, radiation and what else?

A

conduction

75
Q

75 Zinc reacts with copper sulfate solution. What solid product forms?

A

copper

76
Q

76 What gas is needed for fuels to burn?

A

oxygen

77
Q

77 Fuels may ignite if a spark hits them. What else can make a fuel ignite?

A

a flame/heating strongly

78
Q

78 Is energy transferred to or from the electrolyte during electrolysis?

A

to

79
Q

79 Give two ways by which energy is transferred to the surroundings in an explosion.

A

two from: by heating, by sound, by light, by a force

80
Q

80 What type of reaction takes in energy from the surroundings?

A

endothermic

81
Q

81 What happens to the temperature of an acid when an alkali is added to it?

A

It goes up/increases.

82
Q

82 What simple piece of apparatus is used to measure temperature?

A

thermometer

83
Q

83 What unit is used for energy?

A

J/joule/kJ/kilojoule

84
Q

84 What type of bond (ionic, covalent or metallic) exists between non-metals

A

covalent

85
Q

85 In combustion reactions, is energy taken in from the surroundings or given out?

A

given out

86
Q

86 How is energy transferred between reactants and surroundings during dissolving?

A

by heating

87
Q

87 Which of these reactions, displacement or precipitation, always heats up the surroundings?

A

displacement

88
Q

88 The temperature goes down when ammonium nitrate dissolves in water. Is this an exothermic process or an endothermic process?

A

endothermic

89
Q

89 Energy is taken in so that bonds can be broken. Is this an exothermic or an endothermic process?

A

endothermic

90
Q
  1. Burning methane - endothermic or exothermic?
A

exothermic