Topic 2 Structure and bonding Flashcards Preview

Edexcel GCSE Combined Science (Chemistry) 2022 > Topic 2 Structure and bonding > Flashcards

Flashcards in Topic 2 Structure and bonding Deck (60)
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1
Q
  1. What can link two atoms together?
A

a bond

2
Q
  1. Which group of elements is stable and doesnt form compounds easily?
A

noble gases/group 0 in the periodic table

3
Q
  1. How is an elements electron arrangement linked to its position in the periodic table?
A

Elements in the same group have the same number of electrons in their outer shell.

4
Q
  1. How do positive and negative charges affect each other?
A

They attract each other.

5
Q
  1. Which sub-atomic particles of atoms take part in chemical reactions?
A

electrons

6
Q
  1. What is an ion?
A

an atom that is charged because it has lost or gained one or more electrons

7
Q
  1. What happens when an ionic bond is formed?
A

One atom loses electrons to another atom to form oppositely charged ions that attract each other.

8
Q
  1. Which kinds of elements are usually involved in the formation of ionic bonds?
A

metals and non-metals

9
Q
  1. How is a positive ion formed and what is it called?
A

formed by the loss of electrons; cation

10
Q
  1. How is a negative ion formed and what is it called?
A

formed by the gain of electrons; anion

11
Q
  1. What are the forces called that hold ions together?
A

electrostatic forces / electrostatic attractions / ionic bond

12
Q
  1. Why do atoms form ions?
A

to become more stable (like a noble gas)

13
Q
  1. Explain why group 1 elements such as sodium and lithium form a 1+ ion.
A

They both have one electron in their outer shell and lose it to become stable.

14
Q
  1. What are the charges on calcium, oxide and chloride ions?
A

2+, 2- and 1-

15
Q
  1. What structure of regularly repeating ions do ionic compounds form?
A

lattice structure / ionic lattice

16
Q
  1. What is the formula of the nitrate ion?
A

NO3-

17
Q
  1. What is the general name for a positive ion?
A

cation

18
Q
  1. What is the general name for a negative ion?
A

anion

19
Q
  1. What is the charge on the ions of elements in group 1 of the periodic table?
A

+1

20
Q
  1. What is the charge on the ions of elements in group 6 of the periodic table?
A

-2

21
Q
  1. What happens to the electrons in the outer shell of metal atoms when they form ions?
A

they are lost

22
Q
  1. What is the name of the ionic compound containing calcium and bromine only?
A

calcium bromide

23
Q
  1. What is the name of the ionic compound containing potassium, chlorine and oxygen?
A

potassium chlorate (any element combined with oxygen is an ___ate )

24
Q
  1. What does a bond do in an element or compound?
A

holds atoms together

25
Q
  1. What are electrostatic forces of attraction?
A

attractions between positive and negative charges (positive and negative ions)

26
Q
  1. Which part of an atoms structure is most involved when two atoms react?
A

the electrons (because they are on the outside of atoms)

27
Q
  1. How many electrons are in the outer shell of the elements in groups 5, 6 and 7?
A

5, 6 and 7

28
Q
  1. What kind of electron arrangement is most stable?
A

a complete/full outer shell

29
Q
  1. What is the molecular formula of the very common compound formed between hydrogen and oxygen?
A

H2O

30
Q
  1. How many more electrons does an oxygen atom need to get a complete outer shell?
A

2 more (it gains two electrons and becomes a 2- ion)

31
Q
  1. What are molecules?
A

groups of atoms held together by (covalent) bonds

32
Q
  1. Which type of atoms are covalent bonds found between
A

non-metal and non-metal

33
Q
  1. What is a covalent bond?
A

a shared pair of electrons

34
Q
  1. What happens to electrons between two atoms in a covalent bond
A

they are shared

35
Q
  1. What kinds of elements usually form molecules?
A

non-metals

36
Q
  1. What kinds of bonds are found in molecules?
A

covalent bonds are found holding the atoms together in molecules (intermolecular forces are found between molecules)

37
Q
  1. What is the name of the type of bond formed by sharing electron pairs within molecules?
A

covalent bond

38
Q
  1. What term describes the number of atoms of each element bonded together in a molecule?
A

molecular formula (e.g. the molecular formula of a molecule of water is H2O)

39
Q
  1. In oxygen and carbon dioxide, the atoms share two pairs of electrons. How do we describe these bonds?
A

double bonds (represented by = in a displayed formula)

40
Q
  1. What is the name of the force that holds molecules together in gases and liquids
A

intermolecular force

41
Q
  1. How strong are the forces of attraction between molecules compared to the bonds within molecules?
A

They are relatively weak. (Covalent bonds holding atoms together are strong / Intermolecular forces holding molecules together are weak)

42
Q
  1. Are simple molecules usually good conductors of electricity at room temperature?
A

No, they are poor conductors of electricity (as they have no charged particles)

43
Q
  1. In what types of bonds are pairs of electrons shared?
A

covalent bonds

44
Q
  1. What are intermolecular forces?
A

forces of attraction between molecules

45
Q
  1. Do simple molecules have strong intermolecular forces between them?
A

No. They are described as weak.

46
Q
  1. Why are simple molecules poor conductors of electricity?
A

There are no charge carriers.

47
Q
  1. What can you say about the formula of small, simple molecules?
A

They are fixed.

48
Q
  1. What type of bonding is between the atoms in a molecule of water?
A

covalent

49
Q
  1. What type of structure does water have?
A

simple molecular / simple covalent

50
Q
  1. What strength of forces are there between different molecules of water?
A

weak (weak intermolecular forces)

51
Q
  1. Does pure water conduct electricity?
A

no (Most water contains dissolved ions which makes it conduct. Pure water has no charge carriers)

52
Q
  1. What type of structure do diamond and graphite have?
A

giant covalent, giant molecular

53
Q
  1. What does the term malleable mean?
A

can be hammered or bent into a different shape

54
Q
  1. What type of bonding does copper have?
A

metallic

55
Q
  1. What atoms does metallic bonding happen between?
A

metal and metal (i.e it is found in metals!)

56
Q
  1. What holds ions of metals together in a metallic bond?
A

a sea of delocalised electrons

57
Q
  1. Why can metals conduct electricity?
A

electrons are free to move and carry charge

58
Q
  1. What is a metallic bond?
A

the attraction between positive ions and delocalised electrons

59
Q
  1. What are the particles inside a metal?
A

metal ions surrounded by sea of electrons

60
Q
  1. Metals are ductile. What does ductile mean?
A

It can be drawn for example into wires