Topic Test T1 Wk 11 (respiratory & ciruclatory systems) Flashcards Preview

Human Biology Year 11 > Topic Test T1 Wk 11 (respiratory & ciruclatory systems) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Topic Test T1 Wk 11 (respiratory & ciruclatory systems) Deck (38):
1

Function of Blood in Circulatory System

-transport oxygen and nutrients to cells
-transport carbon dioxide and wastes away from cells
-protecting against disease
-maintaining ph of body fluids
-clotting when vessels are damaged

2

Components of Blood

Red Blood Cells- Erythrocytes
White Blood Cells- Leucocytes
Plasma
Platelets

3

Respiratory System Structure

Nasal Cavity
Pharynx
Epiglottis
Larynx
Trachea
Bronchi
Bronchioles
Diaphragm
Intercostal muscles
Ribs
Alveoli

4

Movement of breathing in and out of lungs is...

Ventilation (breathing)

5

Inspiration

-process of taking air into the lungs
-pressure of lungs is less than the atmosphere pressure
-diaphragm contracts
-external intercostal muscles contract extending the rib cage up and outwards

6

Expiration

-process of breathing out of lungs
-pressure of lungs is higher than atmosphere pressure
-diaphragm relaxes
-internal intercostal muscles contract moving rib cage down and in wards

7

Gas Exchange

-blood receive O2 from air and allow CO2 to leave body
-Blood with CO2 diffuses from capillaries into alveoli

8

Alveoli allow efficient gas exchange ?

-have large SA
-have capillaries nearby
-one cell thick
-deep in body

9

Structure of Heart

Superior Vena Cava
Right Atrium
Right Ventricle
Inferior Vena Cava
Aorta
Left Ventricle
Left Atrium
Pulmonary Veins
Pulmonary Artery

10

What is a double pump?

Right side pumps to lungs
Left side pumps to body

11

Arteries

Carry Blood away from heart
Smooth muscles and elastic fibres
Have no valves
Have blood pressure that increases as ventricles contract and vice versa

12

Veins

Carry blood towards heart
Have low blood pressure
Have thin, inelastic walls
Have valves to prevent back flow

13

Arterioles

Small arteries
Supply blood to capillaries
Smooth muscle walls

14

Capillaries

Carry blood between cells
Once cell thick
Involved in gaseous exchange

15

Lymphatic System

Consists of organs, ducts and nodes
Transport lymph (watery fluid)

16

Lymph

Collects and returns interstitial fluid
Defends body from disease by transporting lymphocytes
Absorb lipids from the intestine and transport them to the blood

17

Lymph nodes

Located along lymph vessels
Filters lymph fluid
Contains lymphocytes to help fight infections
Found in clumps

18

Erythrocytes (red blood cells)

Transport gases
Biconcave discs
No nucleus
120 life span
Contain haemoglobin

19

Leucocytes (white blood cells)

Protect body against invasive organisms and tumour cells

20

Thrombocytes (platelets)

Used in clotting

21

White blood cell types

Neutrophil
Basophil
Eosinophil
Monocyte

22

Blood Features

380 degrees Celsius
pH 7.35-7.45
Salinity 0.9%
Total Body Weight- 8%
Volume 4-6L

23

Blood Group A

Antigen A
Anti-B

24

Blood Group B

Antigen B
Anti- A

25

Blood Group AB

Antigen A and Antigen B
No Antibody

26

Blood Group O

No antigens
Both anti-a and anti-b

27

Rh blood groups

Based on the antigen found on the surface of red blood cells
A person with Rh antigen is called Rh positive
A person without the Rh antigen is called Rh negative
Only negative can produce anti body Rh

28

Red cell Concentrates

Blood is put through centrifuge so heavy cells sink and plasma stays on top

29

Whole Blood

Blood from a donor with a chemical added to prevent clotting

30

Plasma

Liquid part of blood, for severe bleeding, liver disease or help with clotting

31

Platelet Concentrates

For those with reduced levels

32

Cryoprecipitate

Freeze plasma then thaw it slowly so it remains solid and contains substances for clotting

33

Immunoglobins

Antibody proteins used for people with reduced antibody levels for particular diseases

34

Autologous Transfusion

Your own blood prior to an operation

35

Signs of inflammation

Heat, Pain, Redness and Swelling

36

Inflammatory Response

Dilation of blood vessels in the affected area
Increased permeability of the capillaries, allowing plasma to leak into surrounding tissue

37

Chemotaxis

Phagocytes are attracted to the affected area

38

Blood Clotting

1. Damage to blood vessels
2. Vasoconstriction to reduce blood flow
3. Thrombocytes attach to wound
4. Clotting commences, formation of fibrinogen
5. Clot retraction to form scab
6. Clot breakdown