Topic Test T1 Wk 6 (cells) Flashcards Preview

Human Biology Year 11 > Topic Test T1 Wk 6 (cells) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Topic Test T1 Wk 6 (cells) Deck (40):
1

Cell Membrane

Allows salutes to move between the cell and the external environment

2

Nucleus

Storage centre of cells DNA and manages cell functions

3

Cytoplasm

Surrounds the organelles contains nutrients

4

Ribosomes

Protein synthesis

5

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

Moves proteins within the cell, covered in ribosomes

6

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

Moves lipids around the cell, not covered in ribosomes

7

Golgi Apparatus

Received proteins from rER, and distributes them to other organelles around the cell

8

Mitochondria

Converts food into ATP (energy)

9

Lysosomes

Breaks down food particles, or worn out cells organelles

10

Vacuole

Temporary storage of water, oils and nutrients

11

Types of tissues

Epithelial
Connective
Muscular
Nervous

12

Epithelial

-Forms the outer parts of skin
-lines hollow organs and ducts
-eg small intestine lining
-eg cuboidal cells

13

Connective

-provides support for the body
-helps to hold all body parts together
-cells are not close together
-separated by matrix

14

Muscular

-responds to stimuli, contracting or lengthening
-3 types- skeletal, cardiac and involuntary

15

Nervous

-made of nerve cells (neurons)
-long projections
-send messages around body
-found in brain/spinal cord
-e.g neuron types - unipolar, bipolar, multipolar

16

Cell Respiration Equation (word)

Glucose + Oxygen = Water + Carbon Dioxide

17

Cell Respiration Equation

C6H12O6 + 6O2 = 6H2O + 6CO2

18

Skeletal Muscles

Voluntary and striated

19

Cardiac

Involuntary and striated

20

Involuntary

Smooth and non striated

21

Osmosis

Diffusion of water across a differentially permeable membrane from a region of higher water concentration to a region of lower water concentration

22

Homeostasis

Maintenance of a relatively constant internal environment despite fluctuations in the external environment

23

Diffusion

Spreading out of particles so that they are evenly distributed

24

Concentration Gradient

The different in concentration that brings about diffusion

25

Enzymes

Proteins that catalyse specific chemical reactions without themselves being altered

26

Activation Energy

energy needed to start a chemical reaction, enzymes function by lowering activation energy

27

Co-Factors

Alter the shape of active site so enzymes can combine with other substrates

28

Lock and Key Model

-substrate attaches to the active site of enzymes
-chemical bonds weaken resulting in two or more new products

29

Catabolism

-Where complex substances are broken down into simpler ones
-releases energy
-eg cellular respiration

30

Anabolism

-Construct complex substances from simpler ones
-uses energy
-protein synthesis

31

Functions of membranes

-Regulate molecules that can enter and leave the cell
-active environment for chemical reactions
-receive messages on receptors
-cellular communication

32

Phospholipid

Membrane is made up of phospholipids and they create and phospholipid bilayer

33

Active Transport

The use of energy to move substances across a cell membrane

34

Fluid Mosaic Model

Model of cell membrane structure, proteins and phospholipid can move freely within the layer.

35

Protein Channels

-Proteins act as doors in the membrane
-channels to move specific molecules through cell membrane

36

Glycolysis

Breaks down one molecule of glucose to produce two molecules of pyruvate
Yields 2 molecules of atp
Takes place in cytoplasm
Requires no oxygen
Anaerobic process

37

Passive Transport

a movement of ions and other atomic or molecular substances across cell membranes without need of energy input.

38

Organic Compounds

Amino acids
Lipids
Carbohydrates
Oxygen

39

Semi Permeable Membrane

Cell membrane controls what goes in and out

40

Functions of cell membrane

Physical barrier
Regulation of the passage of materials
Sensitivity
Support