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Flashcards in Tourism Deck (46):
1

Why has there been an increase in global tourism? (Economically)

-People have more disposable income, so can afford to go on more holidays
-Companies now give more paid holidays so people have more free time so go on more holidays
-Travel has become cheaper so more people can afford
-Holiday providers (e.g. hotels and tour companies) can now use the internet to sell their products to people directly which makes them cheaper so more people can afford to go away.

2

Why has there been an increase in global tourism? (socially)

-The media
-Retirement

3

Why has there been an increase in global tourism? (other)

-There are improvements in technology such as cheaper flights, low cost airlines like easyjet, more accessible airports.
-There is now a greater choice, as many unusual tourist destination shave become better at marketing themselves so more people are aware.
-Many countries have invested in infrastructure for tourism (e.g. better hotels) to make them more attractive to visitors.

4

Why are cities, mountains and coasts popular tourist destinations?

1. Cities:
-culture entertainment and shopping
-London, New York, Paris and Rome
2. Mountains:
-beautiful scenery, activities like walking, climbing, skiing and snow boarding.
-Alps, Rockies, Dolomites
3. Coasts:
-beaches, activities like swimming, snorkelling, fishing and water skiing.
-Spain, Caribbean and Thailand

5

Why is tourism economically important?

1. Tourism helps to create jobs for local people which helps the economy to grow.
2. Increases the income of other businesses that supply the tourism industry, e.g. farms that supply food to the hotels, this also helps the economy to grow.
3. Tourism is important to the economy of countries in both rich and poor parts of the world e.g. tourism in France generated 35 billion euros in 2006 and created 2 million jobs.
4. Poorer countries tend to be more dependent on the income form tourism, than richer ones
-Since the jobs do not need skill given by education and are formal so are more secure than jobs in the informal sector.
-Preserves the culture
-Improves infrastructure and standard of living
-Provides income to country e.g. tourism contributes to 3% of the UK's GNP, compared to 15% of Kenya's.

6

Explain how tourism contributes to the UK economy

-In 2008 there were 32 million overseas visitors to Britain
-The UK is popular with tourists because of the countryside and historic landmarks, e.g. Big Ben and Stonehedge and famous churches and cathedrals e.g. Saint Paul's cathedral and its castles and palaces e.g. Edinburgh Castle and Buckingham Palace.
-London is particularly popular for its museums, theatres and shopping and it is the destination for half the visitors to the UK
-In 2007 tourism contributed £114 million o the economy and employed 1.4 million people

7

What are some of the factors which affect the number of tourists visiting the UK?

1. Bad weather: can discourage tourists from visiting the UK e.g. a really wet summer in 2007 was blamed for a drop in the number of overseas tourists.
2. World economy: in times of recession people tend to cut back on luxuries like holidays, so fewer overseas visitors come to the Uk, however it is not all bad as more UK citizens will choose to holiday in the UK.
3. Exchange rate: the value of the pound compared to other currencies affects the number of tourists, if it is low the UK is cheaper to visit so more overseas visitors come.
4. Terrorism and conflict: wars and terrorist threats mean people are less willing to visit affected areas. Tourism feel sharply after the London bombing on 7th July 2005.
6. Major events: big events can attract huge numbers of people e.g. Liverpool was European Capital of Culture in 2005 and as a result 3.5 million people visited that hadn't been before.
EXTERNAL FACTORS:
-9/11 more reluctant to board a plane (terrorism and conflict on other countries)
-currency

8

Describe the exploration stage on the Butler Resort Life-Cycle Model

-The first stage
-A small number of visitors are attracted to the area e.g. by the scenery or by the culture
-There are few tourists facilities
-Genuine contact between tourists and locals
-Tourism has little environmental, cultural or economic impact

9

Describe the involvement stage on the Butler Resort Life-Cycle Model

-The second stage
-Locals start providing facilities for tourists, which attracts more visitors, however the number of visitors is still small
-A tourist season and a market area can be identified

10

Describe the development stage on the Butler Resort Life-Cycle Model

-The third stage
-More and more visitors come as more facilities are built
-Control of facilities passes from locals to external big organisations who advertise
-Tensions between locals and tourists develop

11

Describe the consolidation stage on the Butler Resort Life-Cycle Model

-The fourth stage
-Tourism becomes a major contributor to the local economy, providing secure jobs and income
-Visitor numbers peak
-Tourist numbers are beginning to level off
-Tensions between locals and tourists still remain
-Some older facilities need upgrading

12

Describe the stagnation stage on the Butler Resort Life-Cycle Model

-The fifth stage
-Visitors numbers have peaked and stay high but begin to fall
-Facilities need refurbishment as the resort becomes unfashionable and they are no longer as good and tourists have had a negative impact on the local environment, making the area less attractive to visit

13

Describe the decline stage on the Butler Resort Life-Cycle Model

-The sixth stage
-Fewer visitors come as the area is less attractive. This leads to decline of the area as facilities become run down or shut: an immediate/major decline or a slow decline

14

Describe the rejuvenation stage on the Butler Resort Life-Cycle Model

-The sixth stage
-If the area is rejuvenated then more visitors will come as they are attracted by the new facilities
-Attempts to modernise

15

What are some of the criticisms of the Butler Model?

-Resorts grow at different rates dependent on e.g. accessibility, planning restrictions and government influence
-Length of stay and spending power of visitor is ignored
-Tourism can lead to environment improvements rather than degradation
-Large companies can protect in the latter stages
-Ignores impact of surrounding resorts
-Not all resorts pass though the six stages

16

What is Butler (1980)?

The six stages based on changes in visitor numbers over time.
The model says that any tourist resort starts on a small scale, develops into something more significant, then either goes into decline or makes changes to maintain its attractions.

17

What are some of the positive impacts of mass tourism?

Economic:
-Brings money into the local economy
-It creates jobs for the local people and increases the income of industries that supply tourism e.g. farming (sell food to the hotels)
Social:
-Lot of jobs created so more likely that young people will stay in the area
-Improved infrastructure, roads and communications for tourists also benefit the local people.
-Income from tourism can be reinvested in local community project.
Environment:
-Income from tourism can be reinvested in protecting the environment e.g. to run National Parks of pay for conservation work.

18

What are some of the negative impacts of mass tourism?

Economic:
-A lot of the profit made from tourism is kept by large travel companies, rather than going to the local economy.
Social:
-The tourism jobs available to locals are often badly paid and seasonal and higher up jobs may go to foreigners.
-Traffic congestion caused by tourists can cause an inconvenience to local people
-The behaviour of some tourists can offend local causing tensions.
Environment:
-Transporting lots of people long distances releases lots of GHGs that cause global warming.
-Tourism can increase littler and cause pollution e.g. increased sewage can cause river pollution.
-Tourism can lead to the destruction of natural habitats e.g. sightseeing boats can damage coral reefs.

19

How can they reduce the negative impacts of mass tourism?

1. Improving public transport encourages tourist to use it and reduces congestion and pollution.
2. Limiting the number of people visiting sensitive environments e.g. coral reefs, reduces damage.
3. Providing lots of bins can help reduce litter.

20

How can you maintain tourism?

1. Build new facilities or improve existing ones e.g. build new hotels.
2. Reduce any tourist impacts that make the area less attractive e.g. litter and traffic congestion
3. Advertise and market the area to attract new tourists e.g. use TV to advertise in other countries.
4. Improve transport infrastructure to make it quicker and easier to get to the area.
5. Offer new activities to attract tourists that don't normally go there.
6. Make it cheaper to visit, e.g. lower entrance fees to attractions.

21

What are the environmental benefits of ecotourism?

1. Local people are encouraged to conserve the environment rather than use it for activities that can be damaging e.g logging or farming. This is because they can only earn money from ecotourism if the environment isn't damaged.
2. It reduces poaching and hunting, since locals will benefit more from protecting these species for tourism that if they killed them.
3. Ecotourism projects try to reduce the use of fossil fuels, e.g by using renewable energy sources and local food (which isn't transported as far so less fossil fuel is used). Using less fossil fuel is better for the environment as burning fossil furls adds to global warming.
4. Waste that tourists create is disposed of carefully to prevent pollution.

22

What are the economic benefits of ecotourism?

1. Ecotourism creates jobs for local people (e.g as guided or in tourist lodges), which helps the local economy grow.
2. Local people not directly employed in tourism can also make money by selling local crafts to visitors or suppling the tourist industry with goods e.g. Food.

23

What are the benefits from ecotourism for local people?

1. People have better and more stable incomes in ecotourism than in other jobs e.g. Farming.
2. Many ecotourism schemes fund community projects e.g. Schools, water tanks and health centres.

24

How does ecotourism help the sustainable development of areas?

1. Sustainable development means improving the quality of life for people, but doing it in a way that doesn't stop people in the future getting what they need (by not damaging the environment or depleting resources).
2. Ecotourism helps areas to develop by increasing the quality of life for local people - the profits from ecotourism can be used to build schools or healthcare facilities.
3. The development is sustainable because jt is done without damaging the environment - without ecotourism people may have to make a living to improve their lives by doing something that harms the environment, e.g. Cutting down trees.

25

Why are extreme environments attractive to tourists?

1. They are an ideal setting for adventure holiday activities such as trekking and river rafting and jeep tours.
2. People want something different and exciting that not many people have done.
3. Enjoy element of danger and risk and the adrenaline which the harsh conditions of an extreme environment can provide.
4. Some wildlife and scenery can only be seen there e.g. Polar bears in Artic and icebergs in very cold environments.

26

Why is tourism increasing in extreme environments?

1. There have been improvements in transport, making it quicker and easier to get to some of these destinations e.g. Qinghai - Tibet railway opened in 2006 that linked China and Tibet (an extreme mountain environment), increasing tourism in Tibet as Tibet was easier to get to.
2. People are keen to see places like Antartica for themselves while they have the chance before the ice melts due to global warming.
3. Expensive but nowadays people have more disposable income so more people can afford to go.
4. Adventure holidays are becoming more popular because of TV programmes and advertising.

27

How is tourism in extreme environments damaging?

-The ecosystems in extreme environments are usually delicately balanced because it's so difficult for life to survive in such harsh conditions.
-The presence of tourists can upset the fragile balance and cause serious problems.
Example: Himalayas
1. Trees are cut down to provide fuel for trekkers and other tourists leading to deforestation.
2. Deforestation destroys habitats.
3. Deforestation also means that there are fewer trees to intercept rain. So more water reaches channels causing flooding.
4. Tree roots normally hold the soil together, os deforestation also leads to soil erosion. If soil is washed into rivers it raises the river bed so it can't hold as much water - this can cause flooding too.
5. The sheer volume of tourists causes footpath erosion, which can lead to landslides.
6. Toilets are poor or non-existent, so rivers become polluted by sewage.

28

Why has Blackpool grown as a tourist destination?

1. In 1846 a railway station was constructed allowing thousands of factory workers to head to the resort for a week's holiday in the summer.
2. In the next forty years Blackpool was transformed, three piers were opened, Blackpool Tower was constructed, the Winter Gardens and Opera House was built and the Blackpool Illuminations began. (Attracts different types of tourists).
3. At peak received 19 million holiday makers a year but 1960 went into decline as cheap air flights meant people could go elsewhere sunny.
4. Now Blackpool receives 10 million visitors as year, but they are often only day visitors with different social and economic characteristics.

29

A Blackpool: Give strategies to cope with the impact of large numbers of visitors and plans to ensure the continuing success.

1. ANTI-SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR, caused by excessive amounts of alcohol, it has 130 licensed premises within its 1 square mile town centre, popular destination for Stag and Hen party weekenders.
-Think/Challenge Scheme, licensees must challenge anyone who looks under 25 to show ID.
-85% of licensees agree that this scheme is very effective to reduce underage drinking, sales to young people in 2007 fell by 30%
-Improves the reputation as reduces the levels of drunkenness, which may attract more people such as families who had previously been put off.

2. TRAFFIC CONGESTION, caused by cars entering the town.
-Rail and coach users encouraged to continue using as improvements are made, Improvements to electric tram system encourage more users , 16 new Flexitrams introduced in 2011, Hire a bike scheme introduced 2009: encourages reduced car use.
-Reduction in the number of visitors arriving by car, reducing accidents and air pollution in the town centre
-Less people and previous visitors put off by congestion, possibly attracting more and larger families who must travel by car.

30

B Blackpool: Give strategies to cope with the impact of large numbers of visitors and plans to ensure the continuing success.

3. CHEAP POOR QUALITY ACCOMMODATION, encouraging a 'lower class' of tourists e.g. Stag and Hen weekenders.
-Blackpool Quality Standard Mark introduced aimed to improve hotel and other accommodation.
-Since introduction in 2004, Blackpool Tourism Awards have attracted an annual increase in both the quality and quantity of entries, over 170 entries for the 16 categories were received in 2011.
-Attracts returning tourist who may not have liked the quality or impressed by it.

4. NEW SEA DEFENCES AND BEACH IMPROVEMENT PROJECT
-BP affected by severe winter storms, and the coast is vulnerable to erosion, the beach area also suffers from pollution and a number of zones have a 'red flag' indicating that the area was not safe.
-£86m investment improving sea defences is underway, providing new promenades for tourists as well as protecting infrastructure, council introduced Turning Tides and LOVEmyBEACH programs to clean up beaches, in 2013 BP's central beach was awarded a 'blue flag' which recognises it as one of the best in the country.
-This attracts a wider range of tourists such as swimmers and bathers and may attract previous tourists who had not been so impressed.

31

Why do these reasons mean that Blackpool will have continuing success?

More tourists, more income, hotel owners can afford to continuously renovate, and in turn more tourists come - virtuous cycle.

32

Why do people visit Thailand?

-Located in South-East Asia
-Cheap but high quality, £30 a night
-Rich culture and history
-Exotic food and silk products
-Landscape always lush and green
-Films e.g. The Beach.
-10 tourists for every local

33

Positive effects of Mass Tourism in Thailand

1. The tourism industry makes up 6.5% of the country's GDP.
2. In 2008 international visitors spend US $16 billion
3. 49% of all jobs directly or indirectly linked to tourism
4. Rates of pay for workers in tourism are considerably higher than the average national wage
5. Tourist demand helps preserve crafts and tradition which might otherwise die out.

34

Negative effects of Mass Tourism in Thailand

1. External factors such as the SARS epidemic (2003) and the Asian Tsunami (2004) led to significant dips in earnings.
2. Loss of cultural identity as a result of globalisation e.g. McDonalds.
3. Waste disposal issues e.g. in Ko Tao.
4. Full Moon Party - 12 tonnes of rubbish after every full moon party. (Rescue Volunteer Team are unpaid and depends on donations).
5. Coral reefs along the coastline are damaged by pollution and activities such as diving schools and tourists boats.

35

A Thailand: Strategies for maintaining the importance of tourism and reducing the negative effects

The Tourism Authority of Thailand and other relevant departments have drawn up the sustainable tourism regulations in order to preserve tourist attractions in their original conditions:
For the tourist:
1. Respect all culture, traditions and environmental values, reduces negative social impact on locals.
2. Do not support illegal businesses by buying endangered species of plants or animals reduces negative environmental impact long term whilst positively supporting local businesses.
For the tour guide:
1. Promote local products and businesses allowing the local culture to remain which reduces the negative social impact for locals.
2. Research the impacts of the tourist destination thus improving your knowledge about sustainable tourism, make others aware so to reduce negative impacts long and short term.

36

B Thailand: Strategies for maintaining the importance of tourism and reducing the negative effects

-In a hotel on the island of Kho Khao a solar/wind power combination had been set up on the reception roof and iytsaves 1/2 tonne of CO2 a year.
-Air conditioning uses half of the hotels power so insulation has been installed in the roof to combat the sun's heat and now 10-15% of the power used by air conditioning can be saved.
-Hot air removed from rooms by AC can be used to warm the water for showers, The owner of the hotel on Kho Khao believes that the environment should come before boosting tourist numbers.
-Reduces GHG, reduces contribution to global warming, reduces negative environmental impacts.

37

Why do people visit Antartica?

1. Sights: Dramatic icebergs and glaciers, wildlife such as seals, penguins, midnight sun and southern lights.
2. Outdoor Activities: Wildlife Watching, Cruising and Flying
3. Cultural Activities: Visiting scientific research stations; visiting Scotts Hut.
4. Environment: Clean air, dramatic, space, challenging, last wilderness, calm

38

How do people reach Antartica?

-Cruise ships (landing and non-landing)
-Fly-cruise and overflights
-Small commercial and private vessels
-Adventure tourism, climbing skiing, kayaking, diving etc.

39

Facts about Antartica

-Surrounded by Southern Ocean
-About 98% of Antartica is covered by ice that averages at least 1 mile in thickness and covers 14 million km squared.
-Small scale tourism began in 1950s
-Over 100 tourist companies involved
-Highest percentage of visitors are American 30.5%.
-1957 first commercial flight by Panam and 1998-99 22 flights from Chile take over 1,000 passengers 'flight-seeing'.

40

A Antartica cope with development of tourist industry

1. Problem: animals become stressed due to large number of tourists visiting causing them to leave their eggs behind.
Solution: No ship carrying more than 500 passengers can land on Antartica (relatively successful but USA did not sign which is largest contributor of tourists and also easier for tour guides to monitor the tourists, therefore less likely to disturb nesting sites or go to SSSIs).
2. Problem: Tourists also cause disturbances to plant population and disruption of biological/ecological cycles
Solution: tourists not allowed to visits sites of specific interest (effective as restricted from certain areas e.g. Mount Flora in Hope Bay and this helps conserve precious wildlife and landscapes and helps them to recover).

41

B Antartica cope with development of tourist industry

3. Problem: Cruise ships can strike icebergs causing oil spills, can damage environment and poison wildlife e.g. close call Nov. 2007
Solution: All tour operators are embers of the IAATO (effective as cruise people are aware and so will try to direct tourism to be safe and environmentally friendly).
4. Problem: Tourists can introduce non-native species via seed transport to the region which are capable of surviving in Antartica particularly as climate warms.
Solution: Tourists not allowed to bring non-native plant or animals into Antartica (relatively successful as it helps to reduce the number of non-native species however it is hard to control).
-CONCLUSION: Overall lots of regulations are put in place for Antartica, an extreme environment to cope with the development of a tourism industry. These are relatively successful however it still takes decades for policy to become law and implemented, and not all countries sign these agreements.

42

Galapagos Islands Facts

- 1000km off the coast of Ecuador
-Galapagos has become more accessible in the last 30 years. In 1980 17,000 tourists a year and by 20102 this was 181,000
-95% of species which were around 400 years ago are still there.

43

Attractions of the Galapagos

-Unique flora and fauna, unique animal adaptions have created huge biodiversity, over half of the 2,800 land species are endemic.
-Activities, scuba diving, hiking, boat trips, photography, visiting the Charles Darwin exhibition.

44

Galapagos Sustainable tourism

1. Tourists arrive mainly by small boats, allowed onshore only at specific locations and limited numbers.
-Small ships, reduces chance of oil spills, less air pollution protects wildlife so that they can reproduce and provide a tourist attraction so people will still visit in years to come.
2. £25 from every tourist goes to Galapagos Island Conservation Trust
-Environment conserved, impact of tourists reduced, area remain ecologically diverse, so tourists continue to visit whilst helping the economy.
3. Boat tours owned by locals take only 10-16 tourists each, many accompanied by a professional guide who educates the tourists on conservation and wildlife.
-Limits numbers of tourists, so reduces noise pollution and professional guides make tourists aware so less likely to litter and destroy natural habitats and less stress on wildlife, reproduce in peace etc. Locals running tours helps local economy and prevents form becoming too commercialised so tourists will still want to go.
4. Galapagos tourism generates $418 million annually, of which an estimated $63 million enters the locals economy.
-Helps local economy and helps provide shelter, facilities and rebuilding for the local area, and future generations will benefit form this. Therefore the locals will benefit form this and so continue support and work in the tourism sector meaning that tourists will continue to visit.

45

What are the disadvantages of tourism in the Galapagos?

-Illegal fishing is hard to control: sharks, tuna, lobsters and sea cucumbers are threatened.
-Oil from boats pollutes the beaches and contaminates the water supply (dangerous for both animals and locals).
-Locals sometimes make jewellery from coral to sell to tourists (this threatens the environment and is not sustainable).
-Flora can be take as souvenir.

46

Is the Galapagos an example of sustainable tourism?

-YES: the authorities have many management programmes to try and ensure future generations will be able to experience the Galapagos the same as today.
-NO: as the numbers of tourists visiting are increasing, greater pressure is placed on the environment and no amount of management can ensure true sustainability.