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Flashcards in Changing Urban Environments Deck (84):

What are the traffic issues in the city?

-High car ownership
-Narrow roads which lead to serious congestion and high risk of road accidents.


What are the pollution problems in the city?

-High pedestrian flow
-High concentration of traffic and restaurants which leads to a poor quality of life and disease may result such as asthma and bronchitis.


What are the traffic solutions?

-Improve public transport
-Congestion and toll charge
-Cycling and park and ride scheme, which wll discourage car use and less likely accidents and congestion.
-Multi-storey car parks as well.


What are the solutions to pollution?

1.Pedestrianisation (removes car traffic and so pollution level).
2. Plant trees (noise barrier).
3. Preventing (heavy lorries to rescue air and noise pollution).
4. Penalties (for littering and sewage).


Why is there ethnic segregation?

1.People feel more comfortable around there own people who speak the same language, religion and same background.
2. Live near important services for their culture (e.g. Place of worship) causes ethnic segregation.
3. Similarly restricted e.g. Lack of money so they all end up in the same place.


What are the disadvantages of Ethnic Segregation?

-isolation from experiencing other cultures.


What are the strategies to support the Multicultural Mix?

1. Everyone has access (print leaflets in a variety of languages)
2. Improve communication between all parts of the community e.g by involving leaders of different ethnic communities when making decisions.
3. Provide interpreters e.g. Having them in police stations and hospitals.
4. Suitable services to be able to provide the alternatives to support their culture.


What is Multiculturalism?

The act of celebrating cultural, ethnic and racial diversity and teaching tolerance.


What is segregation?

This occurs when people of a particular ethnic group choose to live with others from the same ethnic group, separate from other groups.


What are the urban issues in MEDC's?

CBD, inner city, housing, pollution and congestion and the multicultural mix.


What are the push factors in LEDC's?

1. Overpopulation.
2. Natural disasters.
3. Land ownership (small).
4. Overgrazing/over cultivation.
5. Poverty (can't buy fertiliser affects yield if soil is infertile)
6. Lack of services.
7. Lack of electricity, sewage, water services.
8. Lack of investment from government.


What are the pull factors in LEDC's?

1. Expect more comfortable living.
2. Improved employment opportunities.
3. Availability of schools/doctors/hospitals and entertainment.
4. Bright lights.
5. More reliable sources of food.


Why does urbanisation in LEDC's lead to squatter settlements and an informal economy?

1.Cities struggle to support population increase.
2. Rural migrants arrive with few skills and items. Therefore they construct temporary shelters out of materials they can find.
3. Temporary settlements grow large and into large squatter settlements on marginal land.
4. New residents may be unable to find work and so seek in the informal economy (e.g. Selling matches).


What are the characteristics of squatter settlements?

Overcrowded, lack of amenities, unplanned and poor living condition.


Rabid urban growth

Is sustained by a combination of rural urban migrants and natural increase within urban populations.


Invasion stage of Squatter settlements?

1. Temporary.
2. Made of corrugated iron and cardboard (flood and fire risk).
3. No toilets, electricity nor running water.
4. Crowded and informal jobs.


Consolidation stage of squatter settlements?

1. Handmade tiles and concrete blocks (perhaps).
2. Illegal electricity (dangerous), sanitation still a problem (disease).
3. Community increases, income still low.
4. semi-permanent.


Upgrading stage of squatter settlements?

1. Permanent.
2. Handmade tiles and concrete blocks.
3. Some buy electricity, simple sewage system and piped water.
4. Slope managed and regular employment.


What are the solutions to squatter settlements?

1.Self help scheme: government provide material and local people build (money saved from labour spent on basic services).
2. Site and service scheme: small rent (spent to provide basic services for areas) and borrow money to buy materials to build or improve a house on their plot.
3. Local authority scheme: funded by the government the temporary accommodation built by residents are improved.
4. Transport improvements and new towns.


What is urban decline?

Is the process whereby previously functioning cities or parts of a city falls into disrepair. The area begins to loose business, local economy shrinks, increase in unemployment, buildings and public areas become run down, badly maintained and abandoned. Crime, fragmented families and an inhospitable city landscape often results.


What are the MEDC's push factors?

1.Mechanisation of agriculture (18th and 19th century) unemployment amongst farmers.
2. Lack of services in rural areas e.g. Supermarkets and banks.


What are the pull factors in MEDC's?

1. Movement of young people to attend university.
2. New jobs available from industrial revolution (and provisional housing for factory workers).


What is urban growth?

Is the increase in NUMBER of people living in urban areas.


What is urbanisation?

Is the increase in the PERCENTAGE of PROPORTION of people living in urban areas.


What is natural increase?

High rates and improved medicine so falling death rates.


What is a city?

A settlement with a built up areas, with a large number of people living there, often with a high population density.


What is the function of a settlement?

A function of a settlement is its purpose. It relates to its economic and social development and main activities. Most settlements are multifunctional e.g academic (Oxford) ports (Plymouth).


Describe the appearance of the CBD.

1. Tall high rise buildings.
2. Few skyscrapers.
3. High density at day and decreases at night.
4. Oldest area of the city.


Describe the land use of the CBD

1. Used to be industry.
2. Now shops, offices, banks, employment (commercial centre).
3. Transport routes meet here.


What are the problems in the CBD?

1. High land price (few residents).
2. Pollution, litter, congestion and conflict amongst locals and tourists.


Describe the appearance of the inner city

Used to be where factory owners built houses for their workers to shorten the commute so more efficient and they could not afford transport.
1. Warehouse renovation.
2. Compacted rows of terrace houses.
3. 19th century.


Describe the land use in the inner city

Low quality housing.
Housing in urban redevelopment and Convenience stores.


Describe the appearance of the suburbs

1. Semi detached/ detached houses with gardens. Low building density.


Describe the land use of the suburbs

1. Residential: built when private car use and public transport increased.
2. Education: schools nearby.
3. Little businesses (commercial).


Describe the problems in the suburbs.

There is a high demand and expensive housing.


Describe the appearance of the rural urban fringe.

1. Fewer larger detached houses with gardens, low density and high quality and Open space.


Describe the land use of the rural urban fringe.

1. Residential.
2. Urban: factories.
3. Rural: farming.


Describe the problems in the rural urban fringe.

Conflict of development or protect environment and Long commute to CBD.


What are the problems in the inner city?

-Lack of amenities and sanitation.
-High degree of social deprivation.
-Community not so strong
-Declining industry
-High density


What are the solutions to inner city? (Urban development cooperation)

A large scale strategy developed in the 1920's where major changes occurred using both public and private investment.


What are the solutions to inner city decline? (City Challenge)

A big initiative in the 1990's here local authorities, private companies and the local community worked together to improve housing, environment and services.
E.G London Docklands.


Describe the Housing Shortage in the UK

1. There has been an increase of the population by 7% and the population is excpected to carry on increasing until 2036.
2. The number of households have risen by 30% since 1971.
3. 70% of new homes are wanted by single people: younger people and higher divorce rates.
4. An estimated 4.4 million new dwellings needed to be made between 1991 and 2016.
5. Green belt.


What is shared ownership?

Is when the bank pays for some of your housing.


What is affordable housing?

Is when housing is affordable to police and professional public sector jobs.


What are Brownfield sites?

Brownfield sites are land that has been built on before and is to be cleared and reused. These are often in the inner city.


What are the advantages of building on brownfield sites?

-Easy to get planning permission (council supports)
-land is not left derelict
-near to facilities
-land is not left derelict


What are the disadvantages of Brownfield Sites?

-Pollution and congestion increase near the city.
-Expensive to clear and prepare
-restricted area to build on


What are greenfield sites?

Greenfield sites are land that has not been built on before, usually in the countryside on the end he of the built up area.


What are the advantages in building on a greenfield site?

1. Cheaper to prepare.
2. Few if any restrictions on existing roads.
3. Cheaper land (larger property).
4. Space for gardens.


What are the disadvantages on building on a green field site?

Damages untouched environment, attracts to many people to countryside.


What are the solutions to the housing shortage?

1. Urban Renewal Scheme: government strategies that redevelop derelict inner city areas (employment, services and housing). Docklands?
2. New town: brand new towns are built to cope with the overspill population.
3. Relocation incentives: big council house alone move to countryside and government will help you or give you money.


What are some of the issues in the CBD?

1. Pollution and overcrowding.
2. Road congestion.
3. Competition with out of town shopping centres and businesses.
3. Crime and conflict (tourists, locals, young people).


How can you revitalise the CBD?
(Bull Ring)

1. Pedestrianise: stopping car access (reduce traffic and congestion) and introduce cctv to feel more safe and nice.
2. Access: better transport links and car parking.
3. Converting: derelict warehouses to smart new shops, restaurants and museums.
4. Public Areas: e.g. parks and squares to become more attractive and more leisure facilities (at night especially).


What are the problems with Waste in Rapid Urbanisation Issues in LEDC's?

1. Cannot afford to dispose waste safely.
2. Infrastructure is poor (poor roads limit access of lorries).
3. Scale is too large: thousands of tonnes of waste ever day (large city).


What are the impacts of Waste in Rapid Urbanisation Issues in LEDC's?

Can damage the environment and people's health (dismantling old computer for valuable materials may release toxic chemicals and lead poisoning.).


What are the problems of air pollution in Rapid Urbanisation Issues in LEDC's

Comes from burning fossil fuels, exhaust fumes and factories (especially industrialisation).


What are the impacts of air pollution in Rapid Urbanisation Issues in LEDC's?

1. Acid rain may damage buildings and vegetation.
2. Health problems: headaches, bronchitis and asthma.
3. Can destroy ozone layer (which protects us).


What are the management strategies to air pollution in Rapid Urbanisation Issues in LEDC's?

1. Set air quality standards for industries.
2. Constantly monitor levels of pollutants to check it's safe.


What are the problems with water pollution in Rapid Urbanisation Issues in LEDC's?

Water carried pollutants from cities into streams and rivers e.g. Sewage and toxic chemicals from industry.


What are the impacts of water pollution in Rapid Urbanisation Issues in LEDC's?.

1. Damages health of humans and wildlife.
2. Kills fish and disrupts food chains.
3. Harmful chemicals may build up in the food chain poisoning humans (if they eat the fish).
4. Contaminated water supplies with sewage can spread disease like typhoid.


What are the management strategies to water pollution in Rapid Urbanisation Issues in LEDC's?

1. Building sewage treatment plants.
2. Passing laws that force factories to remove pollutants from their waste water.


Rapid Urbanisation Issues in LEDC's: industrial accidents and industrial contamination.

Not enough environmental regulation and a lack of planning from environmental emergencies lead to death and long term health impacts and permanent disabilities.


What is Sustainable development?

Is meeting the needs of today without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.


Sustainable development: Waste.

1. Encourage recycling.
2. Safely disposing of toxic waste to prevent air and water pollution.


Sustainable development: Environment.

1. Areas of open space are safe, enjoyable and accessible.
2. Greens pace (parks) left alone: building on Brownfield sites.
3. Natural environment protected.
4. Historic buildings restored.


Sustainable development: Housing.

1. Access to affordable housing.
2. Green belts to prevent urban sprawl.
3. New homes are energy efficient and carbon neutral.
4. Renewable resources are used instead of non-renewable.
5. Encourage development in the inner city.


Sustainable development: Transport.

1. Less car use, less pollution.
2. Safe, efficient, reliable public transport - energy efficient: London hydrogen bus - use less fuel.
3. Systems that link the city centre with the outskirts.


Sustainable development: Community.

1. Works together on issues in council planning such as crime and security.
2. Investment into CBD.
3. Walking and cycling is safe.
4. Services are accessible to all - including cultural and social facilities.
5. Employment and economic stability.
6. Low poverty rate.


Kibera: facts.

1. Nairobi, Kenya, Africa.
2. 7km from city centre and in south western peri-urban zone.
3. 1 million slum dwellers.


Kibera: Problems.

1. No clinics or hospitals: people die daily from curable disease.
2. 80% has no electricity: shorter days, lower income, no heating=disease.
3. 50% unemployment: unable to pay for shelter or bills.
4. PD of 2000 residents per hectare: closeness spreads disease easily.


Kibera: Problems 2.

1. Heavily polluted: disease is rife and bacteria spreads easily.
2. High crime rates: victims even more struggle.
3. No toilet facilities: children employed to clean - vulnerable to diseases and loose education.


Kibera: Solutions - INDIVIDUAL.

1. Use kerosene lamps.
2. Adults and families teach each other skills to earn money.
3. Since rubbish trucks cannot access they take their rubbish in piles on edge of town or in bags in the river.


Kibera: Solutions - GOVERNMENT.

1. Kenya power and lighting company can provide some power.
2. Kibera intergrated water sanitation and management project (WATSAN) built 2.5km low volume upgraded road and 1.8km storm water drains so inhabitant can access the hospitals and clinics in the city.


Kibera: Solutions - GOVERNMENT.

3. Communal sanitation facilities.
4. Slum relocation and Slum upgrading.
5. Small scale door-to-door rubbish collection and recycling demonstrations.


Kibera: Solutions - NGO's.

1. Charities (churches) seek out orphans and look after them.
2. Some adult training establishments and charities give courses on skills e.g. Seeing and printing.
3. Medicine Sans Frontier (MSF) and AMREF have set up many clinics.


Curitiba: facts.

1. Southern Brazil.
2. 1.8 million people.
3. Budget of $600 million to spend every year.


Curitiba: Aims.

1. Improve environment.
2. Improve quality of life.
3. Reduce pollution and waste.


Curitiba Solutions: Reduce car use.

1. Good bus system
- bus lanes only.
- pre- pay boarding.
- cheap fare (poor outskirts can get to city)
Convinient for residents, reduces pollution and congestion and speeds up journey.
2. 200KM of bike paths.
25% lower than national average car use and one of lowest levels of air pollution in Brazil.


Curitiba Solutions: Open space and conserved natural environment.

1. Over 1000 parks and natural environments: prone to flooding so useful without causing serious damage.
2. Green space per person 1970 0.5m2 - 52m2 1990.


Curitiba Solutions: Good recycling scheme.

1. 70% of rubbish is recycled.
2. Poor areas rubbish truck cannot access are given bus tickets and food for bringing their recycling to local collection.


Why is Curitiba Sustainable?

1. Reduce car use means less pollution and use of fossil fuels, so environment is not damaged for people in the future.
2. Green space means future generations will still be able to use the open space.


Why is Curitiba Sustainable? 2.

3. Recycling fewer resources used and less waste goes to landfill so more resources are available for future generations.
4. Nice place to live as 99% of it's residents said in a recent survey that they were happy with their town.


What are the Problems in the CBD?

1. Lack of space and competition as there is a high cost of land forcing smaller retailers out of the city centre.
2. The environmental quality declined, shops and offices moved away due to competition with out-of-town shopping centres, creating derelict buildings vulnerable to vandalism.


What are the solutions to the problems in the CBD?

1. High rise buildings to increase floor area.
2. Redevelop zones of decline in CBD.
3. Expansion into old inner city.