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Spinal Anatomy I - Exam 3 > Transition Zones > Flashcards

Flashcards in Transition Zones Deck (59):
1

What is the name given to segments that lie in the transition zones of the vertebral column?

transition vertebrae

2

What are the transition zones of the vertebral column?

- occipitocervical
- cervicothoracic
- thoracolumbar
- lumbosacral
- sacrococcygeal

3

How are specific segments within a transition zone identified?

- by adjacent region of the segment
- process of transition
- specific segment (occipitalization of C1)

4

What does the suffix "ization" refer to?

in the process of becoming like

5

What are the possible transition zone-segmental combinations?

- cervicalization of occiput, occipitalization of C1
- dorsalization of C7, cervicalization of T1
- lumbarization of T12, dorsalization of L1
- sacralization of L5, lumbarization of S1
- coccygealization of S5, sacralization of Co1

6

What are the characteristics of cervicalization of occiput?

- an increase in occipital bone size
- formation of new or larger lines on the occipital bone

7

What is the characteristic of occipitalization of C1?

the atlas may be partially or completely fused to the occiput

8

What is another way of implying occipitalization of C1?

atlas assimilation

9

What is the incidence of occipitalization of C1?

0.1-0.8%

10

When do the centers of ossification for the odontoid process first appear?

during the last trimester in utero

11

When do the bilateral ossification centers fr the odontoid process fuse?

at or shortly after birth

12

What joint is formed between the odontoid process ossification centers and the centrum of C2?

the subdental synchondrosis

13

What is the classification of the joint formed between the C2 odontoid process and centrum?

amphiarthrosis synchondrosis

14

Ossification between the odontoid process and centrum joint of C2 first appears at what age?

4 years old

15

A joint between the odontoid process and centrum of C2 is last identified at what age?

7 years old

16

What is the name given to the condition in which the joint formed between the odontoid process and centrum of C2 persists beyond age 7?

os odontoideum

17

What is the name given to the joint between the odontoid process and centrum of C2 which is still evident beyond age 7?

persistent subdental synchondrosis

18

What is the name given to the joint formed between the tip of the dens and the odontoid process centers of ossification?

tip of the dens synchondrosis

19

What is the classification of the joint formed between the tip of the dens and odontoid process centers of ossification?

amphiarthrosis synchondrosis

20

At what age will the tip of the dens center of ossification appear?

sometime in early adolescence

21

Based on the age of appearance, how is the tip of the dens center of ossification classified?

secondary center of ossification

22

At what age will the tip of the dens fuse with the odontoid process?

before age 12

23

If the joint formed between the tip of the dens and odontoid process centers of ossification persists beyond age 12, what is the condition called?

terminal ossicle

24

What is a basilar impression?

persistence of the nonunion of the basilar and condylar parts of the chondrocranium such that the cartilage deforms due to the weight of the brain

25

What is a basilar invagination?

the upper cervical spine appears to be invaginated into the skull on x-ray analysis

26

What are the charactersistics of dorsalization of C7?

- addition of a rib
- changes in superior articular facet orientation

27

What is the incidence of rib-related changes following dorsalization of C7?

0.5-2.5% of the population

28

What genetic patterns are suggested in dorsalization of C7?

- chromosome karyotypes are abnormal
- family inheritance patterns are common
- it is associated with a dominant inheritance pattern

29

Do patients typically present with symptoms specific for dorsalization of C7?

no, they are typically asymptomatic

30

What is the gender bias suggested in dorsalization of C7?

female

31

What is the alteration in C7 facet orientation that may accompany dorsalization?

- the superior articular facet of C7 may change from back, upward, and medial (BUM) to that of a typical thoracic facet, back, upward, and lateral (BUL)
- the inferior articular facet is unchanged

32

What alteration in C6 facet orientation may accompany dorsalization?

- C6 demonstrates a change in inferior articular facet orientation from forward, lateral, and downward (FoLD) to forward, medial, and downward (ForMeD)
- the superior articular facet is unchanged

33

What percent of the population may demonstrate thoracic-like features at C7?

up to 46%

34

What rib-related changes may accompany cervicalization of T1?

the first rib may decrease in mean relative length or become absent

35

What will result from fusion of a short rib to the T1 transverse process?

the transverse foramen

36

What T1 facet orientation changes may accompany cervicalization?

- the superior articular facet may change from back, upward, and lateral (BUL) to back, upward, and medial (BUM)
- the inferior articular facet is unchanged

37

What C7 facet orientation changes may accompany cervicalization?

- the inferior articular facet may change from forward, medial, and downward (ForMeD) to forward, lateral, and downward (FoLD)
- the superior articular facet is unchanged

38

What is the incidence of cervicalization of T1 in the population?

up to 28% of the population

39

What rib-related changes may accompany dorsalization of L1?

elongated bones shaped like ribs may appear

40

What is the incidence of lumbar ribs in the population?

over 7% of the population demonstrates lumbar ribs

41

What L1 facet orientation changes may accompany dorsalization?

- the superior articular facet may change from convex, forward, lateral, and downward (FoLD) to flat, forward, medial, and downward (ForMeD)
- the inferior articular facet is unchanged

42

What T12 facet orientation changes may accompany dorsalization?

- the inferior articular facet may change from convex, forward, lateral, and downward (FoLD) to flat, forward, medial, and downward (ForMeD)
- the superior articular facet is unchanged

43

What is the gender bias associated with dorsalization of L1?

males are two to three times more affected

44

What rib-related changes may accompany lumbarization of T12?

a significant shortening of the mean relative length of 113 mm of the twelfth rib or it becomes absent

45

What T12 facet orientation changes may accompany lumbarization?

- the superior articular facet may change from flat, back, upward, and lateral (BUL) to concave, back, upward, and medial (BUM)
- the inferior articular facet is unchanged

46

What T11 facet orientation changes may accompany lumbarization?

- the inferior articular facet may change from flat, forward, medial, and downward (ForMeD) to convex, forward, lateral, and downward (FoLD)
- the superior articular facet is unchanged

47

What is the usual way of identifying the number of cervicals, thoracics, and lumbar vertebrae during imaging studies?

identify the vertebrae with ribs - they will be thoracics; those higher are cervicals, those lower are lumbars

48

What is characteristic of lumbarization of S1?

- the failure of synostosis between S1 and S2
- squaring of the vertebral body of S1
- flaring of the sacral ala

49

What is failure of synostosis between S1 and S2?

the segments do not completely fuse together

50

What is squaring of the vertebral body of S1?

the S1 vertebral body has similar anterior and posterior heights, hence a lack of wedging

51

What is flaring of the sacral ala?

the transverse process of the ala appears to elevate as though separating from the rest of the sacral ala

52

What articular facet changes accompany the lumbarization of S1?

none

53

What is characteristic of sacralization of L5?

L5 may be partially or completely fused to the sacrum

54

What is the incidence of sacralization of L5 in the population?

41-85%

55

Which segment demonstrates the greatest morphological variation along the spine?

L5

56

What articular facet changes accompany sacralization of L5?

none

57

What is the incidence of variation within the sacrococcygeal region in the population?

up to 14%

58

What is characteristic of sacralization of Co1?

the premature fusion of Co1 to the sacrum

59

What is characteristic of coccygealization of S5?

the separation of S5 from sacrum and its premature fusion to Co1

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