Flashcards in Translation LO Deck (72)
what is the central dogma?
DNA to RNA to Protein
how many high-energy bonds are formed for each peptide bond?
True of False
the basic process of translation is highly conserved between all forms of life
what is the function of messenger RNA (mRNA)?
carries codons that code for the amino acid sequence of a protein
how many possible codons are there?
4^3= 64 possible codons
What is the start codon?
what are the "non-sense" or stop codons on RNA?
what is the function of transfer RNA (tRNA)?
"read" the message and deliver the right amino acid to the ribosome
what dictates the function of tRNA?
the three-dimensional folded structure
why can some tRNA's recognize more than one codon?
wobble-pairing at the third location on the codon
what is the function of aminoacyl tRNA synthetases?
protein enzymes that put the right amino acid on the right tRNA
what is the function of the ribosome?
catalytic center for translation
what synthetase puts a valine on a val-tRNA?
what are the 2 subunits in prokaryotic ribosomes?
30S and 50S
what are the 2 subunits in eukaryotic ribosomes?
30S and 60S
which subunit contains the catalytic center?
the large subunit
what is another name for the catalytic center of a ribosome?
peptidyl transferase center (PTR)
what type of enzyme is a ribosome and why?
ribozyme because it uses RNA to perform catalysis
what is the function of initiating factors in translation?
bring ribosome to the message and assist in getting the machinery assembled
what is the function of elongation factors and their partners?
deliver tRNAs and move ribosome down the message
what is the function of termination/recycling factors?
end the process at stop codon, disassociate subunits so they can be used again
where is the amino acid attached on tRNA?
the acceptor stem
which portion of the tRNA reads the mRNA?
what is the start codon and which amino acid does it code for?
what is the final assembled ribosome called in prokaryotes?
what is the final assembled ribosome called in eukaryotes?
how many tRNA binding sites does a ribosome have?
what are the 3 binding sites on a ribosome?
A- aminoacyl site
P - peptidyl site
E - exit site
what are the 4 phases of translation?
4. ribosome recycling