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M2M Biochemistry and molecular biology > Translation LO > Flashcards

Flashcards in Translation LO Deck (72)
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1

what is the central dogma?

DNA to RNA to Protein

2

how many high-energy bonds are formed for each peptide bond?

4

3

True of False
the basic process of translation is highly conserved between all forms of life

True

4

what is the function of messenger RNA (mRNA)?

carries codons that code for the amino acid sequence of a protein

5

how many possible codons are there?

4^3= 64 possible codons

6

What is the start codon?

AUG

7

what are the "non-sense" or stop codons on RNA?

UGA
UAA
UAG

8

what is the function of transfer RNA (tRNA)?

"read" the message and deliver the right amino acid to the ribosome

9

what dictates the function of tRNA?

the three-dimensional folded structure

10

why can some tRNA's recognize more than one codon?

wobble-pairing at the third location on the codon

11

what is the function of aminoacyl tRNA synthetases?

protein enzymes that put the right amino acid on the right tRNA

12

what is the function of the ribosome?

catalytic center for translation

13

what synthetase puts a valine on a val-tRNA?

valyl-tRNA synthetase
(aminoacid-tRNA synthetase)

14

what are the 2 subunits in prokaryotic ribosomes?

30S and 50S

15

what are the 2 subunits in eukaryotic ribosomes?

30S and 60S

16

which subunit contains the catalytic center?

the large subunit

17

what is another name for the catalytic center of a ribosome?

peptidyl transferase center (PTR)

18

what type of enzyme is a ribosome and why?

ribozyme because it uses RNA to perform catalysis

19

what is the function of initiating factors in translation?

bring ribosome to the message and assist in getting the machinery assembled

20

what is the function of elongation factors and their partners?

deliver tRNAs and move ribosome down the message

21

what is the function of termination/recycling factors?

end the process at stop codon, disassociate subunits so they can be used again

22

where is the amino acid attached on tRNA?

the acceptor stem

23

which portion of the tRNA reads the mRNA?

anticodon loop

24

what is the start codon and which amino acid does it code for?

AUG
methionine

25

what is the final assembled ribosome called in prokaryotes?

70S

26

what is the final assembled ribosome called in eukaryotes?

80S

27

how many tRNA binding sites does a ribosome have?

3

28

what are the 3 binding sites on a ribosome?

A- aminoacyl site
P - peptidyl site
E - exit site

29

what are the 4 phases of translation?

1. initiation
2. elongation
3. termination
4. ribosome recycling

30

which step in translation differs the most between eurkaryotes and prokaryotes?

initiation