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731: Pediatrics > Traumatic Brain Injury > Flashcards

Flashcards in Traumatic Brain Injury Deck (98)
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1

When is an injury to the CNS considered a TBI?

When an external, mechanical force either accidentally or intentionally impacts the head

2

TBI is characterized by a period of what?

diminished or altered consciousness that ranges from brief lethargy to prolonged unconsciousness to brain death

3

18%of TBIs are young children between what ages?

0-4

4

True or False

Brain injury is the leading cause of death and permanent disability in children between the ages of 1-19.

True

5

In every age group the incidence of TBI is __ times greater in boys than girls

two

6

What type of patient has the highest number of hospitalizations and TBI-related deaths?

boys between 0-4, especially those who are impulsive and hyperactive

7

Death rates are inversely related to socioeconomic status with the highest mortality rate occurring in what race?

African Americans

8

Children under the age of 12 months are at the greatest risk of TBI from what?

Falls

9

Children from the ages of 1-4 -years are at the greatest risk of TBI from what?

abuse

10

Children from the ages of 5-9 years are at the greatest risk of TBI from what type of MVA? What about 4-14? 15-19?

Improper restraint in a the car

Hit by a vehicle as a bicyclist or pedestrian

They are the driver of the car

11

What is the second leading cause of trauma death in school-aged children and adolescents?

gunshot wounds

12

Sports and recreational causes account for approximately __% of the brain injuries to school-age children and adolescents

29%

13

What are the 2 mechanisms of TBI?

- acceleration/deceleration injuries
- impression injuries

14

When are acceleration/deceleration injuries caused?

When a moving head hits a relatively fixed object (ground, windshield, etc.)

15

What are the 2 directions in which acceleration/deceleration injuries can occur?

- translational
- rotational

16

Describe the 2 injuries that occur during a translational injury?

- Coup: the injury that results from the initial impact of the skull on the brain
- Countrecoup: the lesion that occurs in the direction opposite of the initial force

17

When does a rotational injury occur?

When the skull rotates as the brain remains stationary

18

What does the rotational effect cause?

brainstem type injuries

19

The rotation of the brain causes diffuse _____ shearing

axonal

20

What type of impairment is most severe with this type of injury?

spasticity

21

When do impression injuries occur?

when a solid object impacts a stationary head

22

What do impression injuries produce?

skull fracture and a focal lesion at the site of the impact

23

True or False

The absence of a skull fracture rules out a significant intracranial injury

False

24

_____ brain damage from trauma is a direct result of the forces that occur to the head at the time of initial impact

Primary

25

What are the 5 types of primary brain damage?

- concussion
- contusion
- skull fractures
- intracranial hemorrhage
- diffuse axonal injury

26

Define concussion

A complex pathophysiologic process affecting the brain characterized by headache, altered awareness and cognitive function, and impaired balance immediately following trauma.

27

What types of behaviors are noticeable following a concussion?

- clinging behavior
- disturbances in sleep
- irritability
- more distractibility than usual

28

Typically how long do the signs of concussion last?

Depending on the severity a few days to a few months, however most resolve within 7-10 days

29

Define a contusion

A bruising or hemorrhage of the crests or gyri of the cerebral hemispheres

30

Where do contusion injuries occur most commonly?

In the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain