Flashcards in Traumatic Brain Injury Deck (98)
When is an injury to the CNS considered a TBI?
When an external, mechanical force either accidentally or intentionally impacts the head
TBI is characterized by a period of what?
diminished or altered consciousness that ranges from brief lethargy to prolonged unconsciousness to brain death
18%of TBIs are young children between what ages?
True or False
Brain injury is the leading cause of death and permanent disability in children between the ages of 1-19.
In every age group the incidence of TBI is __ times greater in boys than girls
What type of patient has the highest number of hospitalizations and TBI-related deaths?
boys between 0-4, especially those who are impulsive and hyperactive
Death rates are inversely related to socioeconomic status with the highest mortality rate occurring in what race?
Children under the age of 12 months are at the greatest risk of TBI from what?
Children from the ages of 1-4 -years are at the greatest risk of TBI from what?
Children from the ages of 5-9 years are at the greatest risk of TBI from what type of MVA? What about 4-14? 15-19?
Improper restraint in a the car
Hit by a vehicle as a bicyclist or pedestrian
They are the driver of the car
What is the second leading cause of trauma death in school-aged children and adolescents?
Sports and recreational causes account for approximately __% of the brain injuries to school-age children and adolescents
What are the 2 mechanisms of TBI?
- acceleration/deceleration injuries
- impression injuries
When are acceleration/deceleration injuries caused?
When a moving head hits a relatively fixed object (ground, windshield, etc.)
What are the 2 directions in which acceleration/deceleration injuries can occur?
Describe the 2 injuries that occur during a translational injury?
- Coup: the injury that results from the initial impact of the skull on the brain
- Countrecoup: the lesion that occurs in the direction opposite of the initial force
When does a rotational injury occur?
When the skull rotates as the brain remains stationary
What does the rotational effect cause?
brainstem type injuries
The rotation of the brain causes diffuse _____ shearing
What type of impairment is most severe with this type of injury?
When do impression injuries occur?
when a solid object impacts a stationary head
What do impression injuries produce?
skull fracture and a focal lesion at the site of the impact
True or False
The absence of a skull fracture rules out a significant intracranial injury
_____ brain damage from trauma is a direct result of the forces that occur to the head at the time of initial impact
What are the 5 types of primary brain damage?
- skull fractures
- intracranial hemorrhage
- diffuse axonal injury
A complex pathophysiologic process affecting the brain characterized by headache, altered awareness and cognitive function, and impaired balance immediately following trauma.
What types of behaviors are noticeable following a concussion?
- clinging behavior
- disturbances in sleep
- more distractibility than usual
Typically how long do the signs of concussion last?
Depending on the severity a few days to a few months, however most resolve within 7-10 days
Define a contusion
A bruising or hemorrhage of the crests or gyri of the cerebral hemispheres