Flashcards in Child Development Deck (42)
A full term fetus is considered __-__ weeks gestational age
Describe the difference between normal and typical
Normal is conformity with the established standards for humans
Typical is having the qualities of a particular group so completely as to be representative of that group
True or False
Lack of variability is a red flag
The less variable and more stereotypical a child's movements are, the more likely that his or her development and movement are atypical
What are the 3 developmental theories?
_____ theories of development emphasize a normal developmental sequence that is common to all fetal, infant, and child mental and motor development.
According to maturationists what is the major driving force of development?
What can be defined as networks of nerve cells producing specific, rhythmic movements, without conscious effort and without the aid of peripheral afferent feedback?
central pattern generators
A premature infant is defined as one with a gestational age of less than __ weeks
How is a preterm infant's adjusted age calculated?
subtract the gestational age (# of weeks in utero) from 40 weeks. Then subtract this from the child's chronological age
When do age adjustments tend to stop?
At age 2
In regards to developmental direction, which comes first reflex or cortical control?
In regards to developmental direction, which comes first local or total control?
total (flailing before fine)
In regards to developmental direction, which comes first distal or proximal control?
In regards to developmental direction, which comes first medial or lateral control?
medial (ulnar before radial)
In regards to developmental direction, which comes first cephalic or caudal control?
cephalic (UE before LE)
When is there an exception to cephalocaudal development?
In premature infants, LE muscle tone developes before UE
Dominant muscle tone throughout the body develops in ____ muscles before ____ muscles
flexor before extensor
The development of antigravity movements and control occurs first in _____ muscles prior to the development of the antagonistic _____ muscles
extensor prior to flexor
(able to extend neck in prone before flex neck in supine)
(able to get into POE before able to bring feet to mouth)
The weight-bearing function of the extremities occurs on ____ extremities before weight bearing occurs on _____ limbs.
In regards to posture what is a major difference between a preterm neonate and a full-term neonate?
Preterm: Less physiological flexion due to lack of flexor tone
Full-term: physiologic flexion (full flexion)
What is the scarf sign and how does it differ in preterm neonates?
the arm is passively moved across chest of child in supine with head in midline
Preterm neonates have offer no resistance to passive movement, whereas full-term neonates offer resistance to passive movement before reaching midline
What are the motor development goals?
- control of the body against gravity
- the ability to maintain the body's COM within the BOS
- the performance of intrasegmental and intersegmental isolated movements (reciprocal kicking or turning head without moving extremities)
Describe the 5 developmental progressions
Describe the 6 prone progressions
- prone lying
- prone on elbows
- prone on extended elbows
- pivot prone
- locomotion in prone
What is the difference between (crawling and creeping?
Crawling: moving slowly by dragging the body along the ground (passive LE)
Creeping: to move across the floor on hands and knees without the trunk being in direct contact with the surface
Describe the 2 supine progressions
- pull to sit
- feet to mouth
Describe the 6 sitting progressions
- supported sitting
- propped sitting
- ring sitting
- half-ring sitting
- long sitting
- side sitting
Side-sitting is essential for transition to what?
the quadruped position for crawling/creeping
Describe the 5 standing progressions
- supported standing
- independent standing
- independent locomotion
- stair climbing